For instance, both A 1 receptors and A 2A play roles in the heart, regulating myocardial oxygen consumption and coronary blood flow, while the A 2A receptor also has broader anti-inflammatory effects throughout the body. Heart Block Adenosine injection exerts its effect by decreasing conduction through the A-V node and may produce a short lasting first-, second- or third-degree heart block. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 15:2068–2073, Robinson AJ, Dickenson JM (2001) Regulation of p42/p44 MAPK and p38 MAPK by the adenosine A(1) receptor in DDT(1)MF-2 cells. Heart attacks and very bad fast heartbeat have rarely happened with adenosine. Heart Vessels 10:119–127, Xu J, Kussmaul W, Kurnik PB, Al-Ahdav M, Pelleg A (2005) Electrophysiological-anatomic correlates of ATP-triggered vagal reflex in the dog. These effects of adenosine constitute the rationale for its use as a diagnostic and therapeutic agent. Circulation 89:1209–1216, Xu J, Hurt CM, Pelleg A (1995) Digoxin-induced ventricular arrhythmias in the guinea pig heart in vivo: evidence for a role of endogenous catecholamines in the genesis of delayed afterdepolarizations and triggered activity. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 279:H741–H751, Mittal S, Stein KM, Markowitz SM, Iwai S, Guttigoli A, Lerman BB (2004) Single-stage adenosine tilt testing in patients with unexplained syncope. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 10:489–502, Meloche S, Landry J, Huot J, Houle F, Marceau F, Giasson E (2000) p38 MAP kinase pathway regulates angiotensin II-induced contraction of rat vascular smooth muscle. Circ Res 95:135–145, Iwai S, Markowitz SM, Stein KM, Mittal S, Slotwiner DJ, Das MK, Cohen JD, Hao SC, Lerman BB (2002) Response to adenosine differentiates focal from macroreentrant atrial tachycardia: validation using three-dimensional electroanatomic mapping. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 287:L1017–L1024, Ramagopal MV, Chitwood RW Jr, Mustafa SJ (1988) Evidence for an A, Ray CJ, Marshall JM (2006) The cellular mechanisms by which adenosine evokes release of nitric oxide from rat aortic endothelium. J Clin Invest 82:2127–2135, Lerman BB, Stein K, Engelstein ED, Battleman DS, Lippman N, Bei D, Catanzaro D (1995) Mechanism of repetitive monomorphic ventricular tachycardia. Europace 5:425–428, Bryan PT, Marshall JM (1999) Cellular mechanisms by which adenosine induces vasodilatation in rat skeletal muscle: significance for systemic hypoxia. J Mol Cell Cardiol 44:905–914, Tune JD, Gorman MW, Feigl EO (2004) Matching coronary blood flow to myocardial oxygen consumption. Adenosine is used to help restore normal heartbeats in people with certain heart rhythm disorders. In the heart adenosine causes dilation of the coronary blood vessels that improves blood circulation to the heart. Br J Pharmacol 143:872–880, Hack SP, Christie MJ (2003) Adaptations in adenosine signaling in drug dependence: therapeutic implications. Hypertension 33:1441–1446, Lindsay BD (2007) Focal and macroreentrant atrial tachycardia: from bench to bedside and back to the bench again. J Physiol 429:401–409, Deussen A, Brand M, Pexa A, Weichsel J (2006) Metabolic coronary flow regulation—current concepts. Trends Pharmacol Sci 18:236–238, Peterman C, Sanoski CA (2005) Tecadenoson: a novel, selective A, Pelleg A, Mitamura H, Mitsuoka T, Michelson EL, Dreifus LS (1986) Effects of adenosine and adenosine 5, Pelleg A, Hurt C, Miyagawa A, Michelson EL, Dreifus LS (1990a) Differential sensitivity of cardiac pacemakers to exogenous adenosine in vivo. Curr Pharm Des 10:2021–2039, Hutchison AJ, Webb RL, Oei HH, Ghai GR, Zimmerman MB, Williams M (1989) CGS 21680C, an A, Ingwall JS (2007) On substrate selection for ATP synthesis in the failing human myocardium. Cardiovasc Res 53:147–155, Hasan AZ, Abebe W, Mustafa SJ (2000) Antagonism of coronary artery relaxation by adenosine A, Hayward E, Showler L, Soar J (2007) Aminophylline in bradyasystolic cardiac arrest. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 312:367–372, Ashton KJ, Peart JN, Morrison RR, Matherne GP, Blackburn MR, and Headrick JP (2007) Genetic modulation of adenosine receptor function and adenosine handling in murine hearts: insights and issues.

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