Indonesia defeated the anti-communist Darul Islam revolt (1959–62) and the separatist campaign of the “Republic of Southern Maluku’, while Malaya managed to defeat its communist challengers (until year 1960) and the Azhari Revolt (1962). ", "Is Culture Destiny? Founded in 1967, ASEAN has grown in both membership and importance in the Southeast Asia region and internationally. aHere, Brunei's existence is already assumed from 1959. Besides the “ASEAN way” of consultation mechanism, another frequently used descriptive term for the operation of the organisation is “ASEAN centrality”. This article argues that the two processes of pacification (in ASEAN and in East Asia) are interlinked, and that the ASEAN approach to security that has spread to all of East Asia is associated with greater peace on the entire subcontinent. ", "The Asian values debate and its relevance to international humanitarian law. Instead of focusing on head-on disputes, ASEAN countries have focused on building conditions of order and peace. In addition the new approach to conflict termination is very similar both in ASEAN and in East Asia. If one looks at conflict statistics, it is clear that the tendency to hesitate in taking a stance in favor of rebels in another country's internal conflict has been translated into actual reality: there has not been a single case of one ASEAN country using troops to support an organization fighting the government of another ASEAN country. China's support of various communist groups as well as allied Western support against communist-nationalists, especially in the context of Indochina wars and the Korean War, was the dominant form of external interference in internal conflicts. Less than half (22 out of 49) of Southeast Asia's conflicts were terminated in this way before nations joined ASEAN, but within ASEAN, this form of conflict termination became prominent. On (c), see Soesastro (1995); on (d) and (e), see Simon (1998, pp. As my contribution to these proceedings, let me survey the political and economic prospects of ASEAN the 10-Member Association of East Asian Nations – in the early years of the new century. Then I will look at statistics of conflict and conflict termination in East Asia and ASEAN and see whether the pattern defined by ASEAN documents, declarations, and praxis as the ASEAN Way can be found in East Asia, and whether this way is somehow unique to the area. Believable results of the ASEAN Way were also identified both in ASEAN and in East Asia: drastic reductions in battle deaths, despite the smaller reduction in the number of conflicts, could be identified in both cases; in both cases, pacification especially affected the relationships between countries in the two pacific areas – East Asia and ASEAN. The share of peace agreements dropped from 14% (seven successful peace agreements) to 6% (just one) with Southeast Asian countries joining ASEAN. The numerable efforts to resolve the Malaysian Confrontation by inviting external help and explicitly focusing on the disputes in talks of Manila (July to August 1963), Bangkok (February 1964), and Tokyo (June 1964) clearly demonstrate that the Southeast Asian tendency of not focusing on divisive issues did not exist before the emergence of ASEAN. 4). Lists. Can it also be that the strict elitist non-interference policy contributes to the difficulty in limiting authoritarian violence and one-sided conflict, both in ASEAN and in East Asia?

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