Cree, Limbu, Some dialects, particularly those of the Chittagong region, bear only a superficial resemblance to SCB. Some argue that the points of divergence occurred much earlier – going back to even 500, many argue the literature was lost during the medieval times, resulting in many words adopting silent letters. So by clicking on these links you can help to support this site., Numbers in Bengali Bangla Keyboard allows you to type in Bangla language. Pallava, Tolong Siki, It is the first language of more than 98 percent of the population. Phrases | one vowel flanked by a consonant on each side). Ojibwe, [32] Two styles of writing have emerged, involving somewhat different vocabularies and syntax:[65][67]. [53][54][55][56], After the contribution made by the Bangladesh UN Peacekeeping Force in the Sierra Leone Civil War under the United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone, the government of Ahmad Tejan Kabbah declared Bengali as an honorary official language in December 2002. But in terms of usages, cases are generally grouped into only 4 categories. Native Bengali words do not allow initial consonant clusters;[74] the maximum syllabic structure is CVC (i.e. Evēla Akuru, Language Martyr's Memorial at Silchar Railway Station in, dʱara ɛk | ʃɔmosto manuʃ ʃadʱinbʱabe ʃoman mɔɾdʒada eboŋ odʱikaɾ nie̯e dʒɔnmoɡrohon kɔɾe | tãdeɾ bibek eboŋ budʱːi atʃʰe | ʃutoraŋ ʃɔkoleɾi ɛke ɔporeɾ proti bʱratritːoʃulɔbʱ monobʱab nie̯e atʃorɔn kɔra utʃit, Among Bengali speakers brought up in neighbouring linguistic regions (e.g. Approximate distribution of native Bengali speakers (assuming a rounded total of 261 million) worldwide. What is accepted as the standard form today in both West Bengal and Bangladesh is based on the West-Central dialect of Nadia District, located next to the border of Bangladesh. It is also a recognised secondary language in the City of Karachi in Pakistan. [32] The modern Bengali vocabulary contains the vocabulary base from Magadhi Prakrit and Pali, also tatsamas and reborrowings from Sanskrit and other major borrowings from Persian, Arabic, Austroasiatic languages and other languages in contact with. [75] The Bengali alphabet is used throughout Bangladesh and eastern India (Assam, West Bengal, Tripura). In 2017 there were about 159 million Bengali speakers in Bangladesh, and in 2011 there were about 104 million speakers of Bengali in India, particularly in the states of Assam, Bihar, Odisha, Tripura and West Bengal, and in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Dogra, Most of the people of Bangladesh follow the religion of Islam, which was made the official religion by a 1988 constitutional amendment. Punjabi, Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Sourashtra, The inundation of most of the fields during the rainy season makes it necessary to build houses on higher ground. [63] The south-western dialects (Rarhi or Nadia dialect) form the basis of modern standard colloquial Bengali. eval(ez_write_tag([[336,280],'omniglot_com-large-mobile-banner-1','ezslot_3',147,'0','0'])); Shômôstô manush shadhinbhabe shôman môrjada ebông ôdhikar niye jônmôgrôhôn kôre. ", "Celebrating Rabindranath Tagore's legacy", "How Bengali became an official language in Sierra Leone", "Why Bangla is an official language in Sierra Leone", "Recounting the sacrifices that made Bangla the State Language", "Sierra Leone makes Bengali official language", "A Bilingual Dictionary of Words and Phrases (English-Bengali)", "Learning International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration", "ITRANS – Indian Language Transliteration Package"., ALPHABETUM - a Unicode font Nouns in Bengali cannot be counted by adding the numeral directly adjacent to the noun. In the context of Bengali romanisation, it is important to distinguish transliteration from transcription. Grantha, Many Bangladeshis, however, live and work abroad—especially in the Middle East. Most Muslims are Sunni, but there are a small number of Shiʿis, primarily descendants of immigrants from Iran. The inherent vowel attached to every consonant can be either [ɔ] or [o] depending on vowel harmony (স্বরসঙ্গতি) with the preceding or following vowel or on the context, but this phonological information is not captured by the script, creating ambiguity for the reader., Bengali and Sylheti Language Services A few archaic letters were modernised during the 19th century. Gujarati, Marwari, In the Bengali writing system, there are nearly 285 such ligatures denoting consonant clusters. Buhid, Pahawh Hmong, The Bengali language evolved as a distinct language by the course of time. -- Chak (3,000 speakers in Bangladesh) the consonant they belong to. Chakma,, Articles containing Bengali-language text, ISO language articles citing sources other than Ethnologue, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2020, Pages using multiple image with auto scaled images, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2018, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Dasgupta, Probal (2003). This means I earn a commission if you click on any of them and buy something. Bengali is the one of the easternmost branches of the Indo-European language family. [23], Along with other Eastern Indo-Aryan languages, Bengali evolved circa 1000–1200 CE from Sanskrit and Magadhi Prakrit. Bangladesh : Language The official language is Bangla, sometimes called Bengali. For example, the letter ত tô and the numeral ৩ "3" are distinguishable only by the presence or absence of the matra, as is the case between the consonant cluster ত্র trô and the independent vowel এ e. The letter-forms also employ the concepts of letter-width and letter-height (the vertical space between the visible matra and an invisible baseline). Bengali is known for its wide variety of diphthongs, combinations of vowels occurring within the same syllable. Fraser, Urdu, Ahom, It is written in its own script, derived from that of Sanskrit. [13][14] Within India, Bengali is the official language of the states of West Bengal, Tripura and the Barak Valley region of the state of Assam. [8][9], The official and de facto national language of Bangladesh is Modern Standard Bengali. An appropriate measure word (MW), a classifier, must be used between the numeral and the noun (most languages of the Mainland Southeast Asia linguistic area are similar in this respect). -- Mizo (830,000 speakers in the region) Bengali (Bangla), the national language of Bangladesh, belongs to the Indo-Aryan group of languages and is related to Sanskrit. Sorang Sompeng, [12] The Bengali Language Implementation Act, 1987 made it mandatory to use Bengali in all records and correspondences, laws, proceedings of court and other legal actions in all courts, government or semi-government offices, and autonomous institutions in Bangladesh. Linguist Suniti Kumar Chattopadhyay grouped these dialects into four large clusters – Rarh, Banga, Kamrupi and Varendra;[62] but many alternative grouping schemes have also been proposed. [34] The Bengali Language Movement was a popular ethno-linguistic movement in the former East Bengal (today Bangladesh), which was a result of the strong linguistic consciousness of the Bengalis to gain and protect spoken and written Bengali's recognition as a state language of the then Dominion of Pakistan. There is yet to be a uniform standard collating sequence (sorting order of graphemes to be used in dictionaries, indices, computer sorting programs, etc.) -- Marma: Considered a dialect of Burmese and spoken by the Marma people. It is also the de-facto national language. The Bengali script in general has a comparatively shallow orthography, i.e., in most cases there is a one-to-one correspondence between the sounds (phonemes) and the letters (graphemes) of Bengali. [72] Two of these, /oi̯/ and /ou̯/, are the only ones with representation in script, as ঐ and ঔ respectively. Sugali, [86][87] Loanwords from non-Indic languages account for the remaining 8% of the vocabulary used in modern Bengali literature. [21][22] Ardha Magadhi began to give way to what is known as Apabhraṃśa, at the end of the first millennium. One kind of inconsistency is due to the presence of several letters in the script for the same sound. -- Hajong: Spoken by the ethnic Hajongs in the Mymensingh District. Bengali was an official court language of the Sultanate of Bengal. Similarly, there are two letters (জ and য) for the voiced postalveolar affricate [dʒ]. The descent of proto-Gauda, the ancestor of the modern Bengali language, from the proto-Gauda-Kamarupa line of the proto-Magadhan(Magadhi Prakrit). With Bangla Keyboard you can write all Bangla Alphabets, letters and words. Bengali differs from most Indo-Aryan Languages in the zero copula, where the copula or connective be is often missing in the present tense. Kangri, Lanna, There has been very little immigration since the 1970s. Bengali proper is an Indo-Aryan language and there are several separate but similar languages and dialects spoken across the country. The open-mid front unrounded vowel [ɛ] is orthographically realised by multiple means, as seen in the following examples: এত [ɛto] "so much", এ্যাকাডেমী [ɛkademi] "academy", অ্যামিবা [ɛmiba] "amoeba", দেখা [dɛkʰa] "to see", ব্যস্ত [bɛsto] "busy", ব্যাকরণ [bɛkorɔn] "grammar". In the eastern, northern, and particularly the southeastern parts of Bangladesh are indigenous peoples speaking TIbeto-Burman languages including: More recent studies suggest that the use of native and foreign words has been increasing, mainly because of the preference of Bengali speakers for the colloquial style. Bengali presents a strong case of diglossia, with the literary and standard form differing greatly from the colloquial speech of the regions that identify with the language. These allographs, called কার kar, are diacritical vowel forms and cannot stand on their own. -- Chin languages like Falam, Haka, Khumi, Bawm, and Asho (750,000 speakers combined in Bangladesh, Burma, and India) It is the first language of more than 98 percent of the population. Odia, Consonants all have an inherent vowel which has two different pronunciations, the choice of which is not always easy to determine and which is sometimes not pronounced at all. [47], The national anthems of both Bangladesh (Amar Sonar Bangla) and India (Jana Gana Mana) were written in Bengali by the Bengali Nobel laureate Rabindranath Tagore. It is written in its own script, derived from that of Sanskrit. Redjang, The Bawms that live on the Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh call their settlements "Bawmram", which literally means an area or location inhabited by Bawms.. The Bengali language is native to the region of Bengal, which comprises the present-day nation of Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal.

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