Webster-Stratton C, Kolpacoff M, Hollinsworth T (1988) Self-administered videotape therapy for families with conduct-problem children: comparison with two cost-effective treatments and a control group. He lives alone in his own home, and was looking forward to having the opportunity to explore his interests. Principles of working briefly with psychological interventions, Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window), Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window), Click to share on Google+ (Opens in new window), on Brief Psychological Interventions for Anxiety and Depression, Box 10.1 Five principles determining care of a patient with emotional disorder or distress, Psychosocial Interventions in the Community for Anxiety and Depression, Anxiety and Depression in Children and Adolescents. There is a range of evidence-based brief psychological interventions that can be integrated into routine practice. A wide range of intervention strategies exist and they are directed towards various types of issues.

These interventions are not tailored towards treating a condition but are designed to foster healthy emotions, attitudes and habits. In applied psychology, interventions are actions performed to bring about change in people. Psychotherapy, also known as talk therapy, promotes a relationship between a trained psychotherapist and a person suffering from a psychological disorder. This criterion resulted in the exclusion of meta-analyses examining the effects of using psychosocial interventions as an adjunct to pharmacotherapies. This understanding provides both the practitioner and patient with a shared understanding of the ‘vicious cycles’ of anxiety and depression, and offers a ‘map’ that can be used to guide decision-making about the best place to intervene to break the cycle, and the choice of intervention to achieve this. There is a range of options for brief psychological therapies, with ‘pure’ self-help drawing primarily on written materials, often referred to as ‘bibliotherapy’, and electronic or computerised resources, such as computerised cognitive-behavioral therapy (cCBT) packages that require minimal practitioner input. 27 March 2013. Multidimensional treatment foster care: using strategies from family therapy and behaviour therapy to intervene directly in systems and processes related to antisocial behaviour (for example, parental discipline, family affective relations, peer associations and school performances) for children or young people in foster care and other out-of-home placements. This chapter outlines key evidence-based brief psychological interventions, and explains how they can provide practical ways of helping patients develop strategies for managing symptoms of anxiety and depression. Psychosocial interventions have a greater or more direct focus on a person's social environment in interaction with their psychological functioning. What are brief psychological interventions? For those patients with apparently more complex or longstanding difficulties, brief interventions can provide a useful stepping stone to more in-depth and intensive psychotherapies. By using a stepped care approach (Chapter 3), low-intensity interventions can provide a basis on which to improve the ‘here-and-now’ situation, which will increase self-efficacy and in turn prepare the ground for psychological therapy to address the longer-standing issues if required . For a significant proportion of primary care patients, having timely access to brief, evidence-based psychological intervention will be sufficiently effective for them to progress, with a self-management plan, supported by scheduled review by the primary care practitioner. Hence an enquiry that validates the patient’s feelings and normalises their coping strategies, may be sufficient to provide the impetus for behaviours that create change, such as feeling confident to confide in a trusted friend. < div class='tao-gold-member'>, Clare Baguley, Jody Comiskey and Chloe Preston, Six Degrees Social Enterprise CIC, The Angel Centre, Salford, UK. Examples include helping clients to focus on good things, the future self, gratitude, affirmation of the self and kindness towards others. Sometimes the reason for asking for help is initiated not by the patient but at the insistence of a family member or partner who can see the effects of the problems more clearly. Six Degrees Social Enterprise CIC, The Angel Centre, Salford, UK The ultimate goal behind these interventions is not only to alleviate symptoms but also to target the root cause of mental disorders. There are five useful principles to bear in mind when formulating the care of a patient who presents with emotional disorder or distress (Box 10.1). PAIs can be used in psychotherapy as well as outside of it. Self-talk: the internal conversation a person has with themselves in response to a situation. His father has made a good recovery and regained his independence, but John now finds himself feeling depressed, without motivation and reluctant to leave his house. A wide range of intervention strategies exist and they are directed towards various types of issues. [citation needed] Psychological interventions have many different applications and the most common use is for the treatment of mental disorders, most commonly using psychotherapy. Examples of well-developed programmes are the Triple P (Sanders et al. It can also be used subsequently to understand and manage stumbling blocks along the course of recovery. This versatility adds to their effectiveness in addressing all kinds of situations.[2]. intervention that emphasizes psychological, behavioural or social factors rather than biological factors, such as pharmacotherapy.

He has stopped seeing friends, and is reluctant to talk to anyone as he thinks he has no right to feel depressed and he is a failure. In reality, most patients are unlikely to attend primary care for help with mood problems until they are significantly affecting their daily lives and function, such as their ability to work, or where physical symptoms, such as fatigue or palpitations due to anxiety, are causing them concern. Or, providing a simple rationale for the way the patient feels, based on the interaction between how they feel, what they are thinking and how this is affecting their coping behaviours, may help them gain a hopeful perspective that has been impossible for them to achieve on their own.

This understanding provides both the practitioner and patient with a shared understanding of the ‘vicious cycles’ of anxiety and depression, and offers a ‘map’ that can be used to guide decision-making about the best place to intervene to break the cycle, and the choice of intervention to achieve this. combining a variety of approaches including modelling and practice, role-playing and reinforcement. In reality, most patients are unlikely to attend primary care for help with mood problems until they are significantly affecting their daily lives and function, such as their ability to work, or where physical symptoms, such as fatigue or palpitations due to anxiety, are causing them concern.

Facing the challenge of balancing the principles of self-help whilst actively working to counter the inertia of depression or avoidance behaviour of anxiety, the practitioner works in a structured and active way alongside the patient to promote engagement and stimulate motivation.

As illustrated in the case of John, not all patients will present with obvious outward distress, and empathic curiosity is required to elicit how they are feeling.

This chapter outlines key evidence-based brief psychological interventions, and explains how they can provide practical ways of helping patients develop strategies for managing symptoms of anxiety and depression.
John is interesting as, whilst there are clear environmental and life stage factors to account for his emotional state, it requires a degree of ‘psychological mindedness’ to manage this transitional process.

It is worth noting that whilst each principle builds upon the previous, each may be therapeutic. This can prove to be a helpful measure in itself; by breaking the cycle of immediate distress and enabling the patient to draw upon pre-existing coping and problem-solving abilities, the brief interventions can provide the ground work for future psychotherapy for more pervasive difficulties. 2000) and Webster-Stratton (Webster-Stratton et al. To encourage self-efficacy between sessions, ‘tasks’ or ‘homework’ such as activity schedules or thought diaries are often used. Proactively review progress at regular intervals and offer choice by discussing options. Two months after finishing work his widowed father had a stroke and John dedicated most of the next 6 months supporting his father in his recovery.

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