"name": "Power Supply: Definition, Functions & Components" "name": "Home" In the capacitor input filter, the capacitor charges to the peak voltage of the rectified wave. Chokes used in radios have values from 8 to 30 henrys. It changes (in most cases reduces) the level of supply to a value suitable for driving the load circuit. "position": 3, During the second half of the input cycle, point B is positive, diode anode D2 is positive, and current flows as shown in Figure 10. Some power supplies are separate standalone pieces of equipment, while others are built into the load appliances that they power. This power comes out of an outlet at 115-volt ac, with a frequency of 60 Hertz. The magnitude of the wave depends on the turns ratio of the transformer. No matter which diode is conducting, the current through load resistor R is always in the same direction. Figure 18. Capacitors used for this purpose are electrolytic types because large capacitances are needed in a limited space. {

During the first half cycle, point A is positive. Both halves of the input voltage are rectified and the full voltage of the transformer is used. Line-operated bridge rectifier circuit. Figure 17. { However, electricity for electrical and electronic devices are commonly supplied by the local power company. The direction of current during the second half cycle. A tap placed midway between the two ends of a secondary winding is called a center tap. Figure 12 shows a two rectifier package. Power supplies in recent times have greatly improved in reliability but, because they have to handle considerably higher voltages and currents than any or most of the circuitry they supply, they are often the most susceptible to failure of any part of an electronic system. A better filtering action can be obtained by using two diodes. In Figure 9, point A is positive and diode anode D1 is positive. The input voltage to the transformer appears as a sine wave. A capacitor connected across the rectifier output provides some filtering action, Figure 17. © 2007− 2020 Eric Coates MA BSc. "item": High voltages are needed to operate CRTs and other devices. Definition: A power supply is an electronic circuit designed to provide various ac and dc voltages for equipment operation. To achieve this circui…

The diodes, D1 and D2, used in Figures 9 and 10, are packaged both individually and in pairs. This connection makes the end of R connected to the cathode positive as shown in Figure 5. "url": "https://electricalacademia.com", Figure 16. See Figure 21.

[ An isolation transformer is a transformer that has the specific purpose of isolating the primary circuit from the secondary circuit. Recall that inductance was that property of a circuit that resisted a change in current. 2. The circuit configuration appears as the Greek letter π. It also regulates the voltage to an adequate amount, which allows the computer to run smoothly without overheating. Touching the ground connection alone will not result in a shock. The output voltage of this full-wave rectifier is taken from across R. It consists of direct current pulses at twice the frequency of input voltage, Figure 11. 3. High voltages are needed to operate CRTs and other devices. Figure 10 follows the second half cycle. (Hons) Though it is one of the neglected one compare to the other parts, power supply is a must for a system. A 24-pins cable is backwards compatible with a 20-pins motherboard, often this cable can be split into 20- and 4-pins … Power supplies available on the market have different size and shape that will fit into a particular type of computer case. Figure 11. In Figure 13, point A of the transformer secondary is positive. The power supply converts a 110-115 or 220-230 volt AC (alternating current) into a steady low-voltage DC (direct current) usable by the computer and rated by the number of watts it generates.

The waveforms of input and output of full-wave diode rectifier. It is used when a negative supply voltage is required. In the capacitor input filter, the capacitor charges to the peak voltage of the rectified wave. It will be more easier and cheaper to replace than try to service it. "@context": "http://schema.org", After a voltage has gone through a power supply’s transformer, the next step is rectification. However, the half-wave rectifier uses only one half of the input ac wave. Movement above and below the average voltage is called the ac ripple. Our body or hands must be joined across both leads of the secondary connections in order to receive a shock. 4. To produce this full-wave rectification in this circuit, the secondary voltage was cut in half by the center tap. Current in bridge rectifier during the first half cycle. The diode conducts, producing a voltage drop across resistor R equal to IR. Low dc voltages are needed to operate ICs and transistors. } Further filtering is produced by the choke in series with the load. It changes (in most cases reduces) the level of supply to a value suitable for driving the load circuit.

A variety of transformers can be found in nearly all electronic devices. That is because all components of a computer system don’t need the same power. This tap is attached to the ground. It is possible to have a power supply that provides half-wave rectification without the use of a transformer.

Input and output of the capacitor filter showing the change in the waveform.

An oscilloscope connected across R produces the waveform shown to the right in Figure 6. Sometimes, these power supplies can be named to as electric power converters. The function of power unit is to convert the electrical power (AC) comes from wall socket to a suitable type and voltage (DC) so that each component of a computer works properly. Two circuits are shown so that the current can be observed in each half cycle. "@type": "BreadcrumbList", var https_page;var socializeit_options=socializeit_options||[];socializeit_options.push({el_id:"socializeit_",pack:2,domain:"all-about-computer-parts.com",https_page:https_page,share_horizontal_label:"Share this page:",share_sticky_label:"Share",payItText:"",payItExpanded:"",szColor:"",whatIsThisLabel:"What’s this? Yet, it offers very little opposition to a direct current.

Current ratings range from 50 to 200 milliamperes. The main function of this device is to change the electrical current from a source to the accurate voltage, frequency and current to supply the load. Provide some method of voltage division to meet equipment needs. The filtering action can be improved by adding a choke in series with the load. Figure 14. The tapped voltages, Figure 4, are 180 degrees out of phase with respect to the center tap. Figure 12. Filtering action of a capacitor. Many power supplies use a center tap secondary transformer winding. Standing on the ground while touching the hot connection will result in a shock.

It can be obtained using a filter network. See, When the first filtering component is a capacitor, the circuit is called a. Proper respect and extreme caution must be used at all times when working with, or measuring, high voltages. Between the pulsations in the wave, voltage from the rectifier drops. Luck of proper supply of power will damage a computer system. "position": 2, This is done via the 20-pins or 24-pins connector. }. Input and output waveforms of a diode rectifier. A steadier dc is needed. There are different power supply form factors, but ATX and LPX are the popular types found in most systems. Usually, power units comes with a case, however, it is a requirement to know the factors behind this unit before picking a new one. Why different converted power? Batteries can provide all of these voltages. The output is 180 degrees out of phase with the primary. Half-wave rectification without a transformer. Common values for the capacitors range from 4 to 2000 microfarads. Test your knowledge of basic power supplies. All rights reserved. Figure 10.

The power supply receives 120 or 230V and converts into 3.3V, 5.5V and 12V. Figure 7.

Regulated dc power supply. The output of this supply is five volts dc. The primary function of a power supply is to convert electric current from a source to the correct voltage, current, and frequency to power the load. It stores electrons at peak voltage and then supplies electrons to the load when rectifier output is low. It is equal to 0.637 × peak voltage. When you are going to replace a malfunction power unit, you should choose the exact form factor that will go with the existing case of your computer. The filter choke consists of many turns of wire wound on a laminated iron core. Function of computer power supply . "item": Note that the B side of the transformer is connected to ground. With this setup, both half cycles of the input wave can be used.

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