These observations together with results from complementation experiments suggest that FBNYV (and other nanovirids) require a virus-encoded helper factor for its vector transmission that is absent from purified virion preparations. There is considerable research effort at present being made to explore the pheromone systems of an increasing number of aphid species for use in pest management. The roots grow poorly and the sugar content is reduced. Both winged and wingless forms exist, and at this time of year, they are all females. This aphid also acts as a vector for viruses that cause plant disease, and the honeydew it secretes may encourage the growth of sooty mould. PVY was detected also in Lebanon including an isolate causing superficial necrosis on potato tubers (Le Romancer et al., 1994), probably a PVYNTN isolate. [9], The black bean aphid can feed on a wide variety of host plants. Species and varieties may differ in their susceptibility to a given virus more when one species of aphid is used as a vector than with another. Over 50 aphid species are known to transmit PVY (Ragsdale et al., 2001). Thieno[3,4-e]-1-thia-2,4-diazine 1,1-dioxides 281 (R = alkyl; R1 = H, Cl, F) are inhibitors of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and have significant anti-HIV-1 activity <1998AAC618>. This virus is frequent in the Mediterranean basin and causes important economic damage especially in regions where growing virus-free seeds is not a general practice.
Most populations of potato aphid (green and pink potato aphid), Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas), transmit PLRV poorly if at all, but this species occasionally has been implicated in early season spread (Woodford et al., 1995). [2], Some taxonomists consider it a group of related species, or possibly biotypes. Monoclonal (Jordan and Hammond, 1991) and polyclonal (Makkouk et al., 1988c) antibodies were produced for BYMV detection by ELISA and primers for detection by RT-PCR (Bariana et al., 1994; Ortiz et al., 2006; Uga, 2005) (Table III). Bicyclic 1-oxa-2,4-diazine 272, in combination with other known antibacterials, has proven effective against bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus <2003FRP2835186, 2002WO2002010172>. [8] Celery can be heavily infested. Edward B. Radcliffe, Abdelaziz Lagnaoui, in Potato Biology and Biotechnology, 2007. Aranzazu Moreno, Alberto Fereres, in Advances in Virus Research, 2012. ER protects potato plants against all strains of PVY. Distribution in the Mediterranean countries. Together with the observation that longer acquisition and inoculation access feeding periods resulted in higher transmission rates, the long persistence of nanovirids in their insect vectors indicates that they are transmitted in a circulative persistent manner similar to that of luteoviruses. ben.webster@bbsrc.ac.uk Behavioral and electrophysiological responses of winged Aphis fabae to volatiles of faba bean, Vicia faba (var. Offered spindle and beet leaves on growing plants throughout the year, winged aphids moved from one to the other depending on the active growth state of each and the senescence of each host plant. gossypii, M. persicae, and Macrosiphum euphorbiae, but some of these accounts now appear questionable. This enables us to improve your future experience on our website. Figure 1. Dawson et al. Black bean aphid colonies are very conspicuous on individual plant stems and leaves. Propagation hosts and purification. (1998) showed that when sense or antisense gene constructs derived from the Pro gene of PVY, transformed into plants, immunity is conferred to the virus from which the transgene was derived. The aphids may not be the original source of infection, but are instrumental in spreading the virus through the crop.

Whereas only one aphid species, the banana aphid (Pentalonia nigronervosa) and Micromyzus kalimpongensis has been reported as respective vector of BBTV and CBDV, several aphid species transmit FBNYV, MDV, and SCSV. [11] Both physical and chemical features of the plant may markedly affect aphid feeding behavior. Although the nepetalactones and related compounds are found in plants of the genus Nepeta, biosynthesis and regulation are not well understood in either kingdom (Hardie et al., 1999). SCSV has been reported to be vectored also by Ap. Other aphid vectors of FBNYV are the, Pheromones: Function and Use in Insect and Tick Control☆, Edward B. Radcliffe, Abdelaziz Lagnaoui, in, Transmission 1: By Invertebrates, Nematodes and Fungi, Matthews' Plant Virology (Fourth Edition), Six-membered Rings with Three or more Heteroatoms, and their Fused Carbocyclic Derivatives, alkyl) have been prepared as pesticides and found to be effective in a, <1996CPB215, 2004WO2004077367, 1997JPP09020784>. Thus, the Ryadg gene from S. tuberosum ssp. Detection methods available. 1963. PAP applied to the leaf surface may not be sufficient to enter the cell during aphid feeding (Lodge et al., 1993). These plants were, however, not resistant to field isolates of the PVYN strain group. The virus is reported to infect nearly 200 species in 14 families. This virus is seed-transmitted in lettuce and several weed species that are commonly present in lettuce fields (Nebreda et al., 2004). Although viruliferous aphids often retain transmission ability for life, nanovirids do not multiply in their insect vectors. It was proposed that exogenously applied PAP enters the damaged cell together with the virus and inhibits translation of viral gene products during the first steps after inoculation. [11] Certain species of tiny parasitic wasps lay their eggs inside aphids and the developing wasp larvae devour their hosts from inside. High levels of resistance to PVY were obtained by transforming potato with the P1 sequence of PVYO in sense or antisense orientation (Mäki-Valkama et al., 2000). BYMV is distributed worldwide including several Mediterranean countries. Some species such as Aphis fabae (black bean aphid), Metopolophium dirhodum (rose-grain aphid), Myzus persicae (peach-potato aphid), and Rhopalosiphum padi (bird cherry-oat aphid) are serious pests.


PVYNTN causes a damaging disease, designated potato tuber necrotic ringspot disease, in which tubers develop superficial rings that initially are raised but later are sunken and necrotic and often become more conspicuous during storage; such symptoms can develop in as much as 90% of susceptible cultivars (Le Romancer and Nedelec, 1997). This aphid is usually seen in large numbers and is a tiny, plump insect about two millimetres long with a small head and bulbous abdomen. Under natural conditions, all nanovirids are transmitted by certain aphid species, in which they can persist for many days or weeks without replicating in their vectors. Other aphid vectors of FBNYV are the black bean aphid (Aphis fabae) and the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum). The main vectors of LMV in the central region of Spain were M. persicae, A. gossypii, and M. euphorbiae, while Aphis fabae and Hyperomyzus lactucae transmitted with low efficiency and Rhopalosiphum padi and Nasonovia ribisnigri did not transmit the virus. Pyridone-fused 3,4-dihydro-2H-1-thia-2,4-diazine 1,1-dioxides 282 (R = H, alkyl, cycloalkyl; R1 = H, Ar) are useful for inhibiting thrombin and thrombotic occlusions <2000WO2000018762>. The black bean aphid is dark olive green to black with black bands across the back. [1][6][7], Further parthenogenesis takes place on these new hosts on the undersides of leaves and on the growing tips. Protein NIa forms nuclear inclusions and has two domains: the VPg (apparently involved in replication and translation), and a protease domain that cleaves all proteins at the C-terminal half of the precursor. Several examples are known where infection of a plant with a virus makes the plant more suitable for the insect vector to grow and reproduce. T.C. Transmission studies showed that aphids are able to transmit BBTV, FBNYV and SCSV following short acquisition and inoculation access feeding periods of about 30 min each. For example, sinigrin, a mustard oil glucoside found in the Brassicaceae, stimulates feeding by aphids that normally feed on brassicas, but inhibits uptake by species that do not feed on members of this family (Nault and Styer, 1972). (1987) found that (E)-b-farnesene, the alarm pheromone of the turnip aphid, Lipaphis erysimi, was not effective unless isothiocyanates were added to the blend, suggesting a host–plant volatile, context-dependent effect of (E)-b-farnesene. Of course, the first approach is to use high grade seed potatoes, with a minimal infection by PVY (and other viruses).

It is transmitted in a nonpersistent manner by many aphid species, being M. persicae and M. euphorbiae the most efficient vectors worldwide. Serological differentiation of strains has been improved by the use of monoclonal antibodies (Cerovska, 1998; Ellis et al., 1996; Fernandez-Northcote and Gugerli, 1988; Singh et al., 1993). [1][5], The black bean aphid has both sexual and asexual generations in its life cycle. Varies from 2.5-10 % plants infested depending on crop growth stage. The excess sugary fluid, honeydew, is secreted by the aphids. For instance, the sex pheromone of the aphid Aphis fabae is a 29:1 blend of (þ)-(4aS,7S,7aR)nepetalactone and (-)-(1R,4aS,7S,7aR)-nepetalactol (Pickett et al., 1992). [7] The offspring are also females and able to reproduce without mating, but further generations are usually winged forms. Some PVYN isolates cause the potato tuber necrotic disease (Le Romancer and Kerlan, 1991), and are referred to as PVYNTN. The cumulative increase of the aphid numbers in a set of plants would be substantial. Winged individuals develop as a response to overcrowding and they disperse to new host plants and other crops.

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