• Battery efficiency in miles/kWh, MPGe, kWh/100-miles. Some do not list either. Of course, if you have enough solar panels on your house, the gasoline equivalent MPG is very much higher. [22][23], Excess heat is a main cause of battery failures, as when the electrolyte evaporates due to high temperatures, decreasing the effective surface area of the plates exposed to the electrolyte, and leading to sulfation. The NEDC range value for a specific BEV is always considerably larger than the EPA range, which means that the miles/kWh is always larger. Some battery manufacturers include a built-in hydrometer to show the state of charge of the battery. http://www.roperld.com/Science/My5BEVs.pdf, http://www.roperld.com/Science/TM3LR_SCChargingCurves.pdf, L. David Roper, ROPERLD@VT.EDU, http://www.roperld.com/personal/roperldavid.htm 4 January 2019, EV Education, EV adoption, battery capacity, EV efficiency, EV education, Tesla's Incredible Efficiency Leaves Other EVs Stranded, How The EPA Rates Electric Cars: Range, Efficiency & More, Electric Cars Battery Capacity and Efficiency: In-Depth Analysis, Graphs, https://insideevs.com/features/341926/electric-cars-battery-capacity-and-efficiency-in-depth-analysis-graphs/, Worldwide Harmonized Light Vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP), 2021 Rivian R1T Electric Pickup Truck: First Drive Wows In A Big Way, Watch Tesla Model X Race Modded Audi RSQ8 After Audi Destroys Lambo Urus, Watch Lordstown Endurance Electric Pickup Take On Ford F-150 In Tug Of War, Exclusive Behind-The-Scenes Look Into Amazing Tesla Cybertruck Clone, Tesla Model Y: Likes And Dislikes After Four Months, 6,000 Miles. Modern cars with computer controlled. The rating is defined as the current a lead-acid battery at that temperature can deliver for 30 seconds and maintain at least 1.2 volts per cell (7.2 volts for a 12-volt battery). They are sometimes referred to as "SLI batteries" for this reason, for starting, lighting, and ignition. This allows the electrolyte and ions to pass through but keeps the sludge build up from bridging the plates. An electric vehicle's battery capacity is measured in kilowatt-hours (kWh), the same unit your home electric meter records to determine your monthly electric bill. Hot cranking amperes (HCA) is the amount of current a battery can provide at 80 °F (27 °C). 1336 is for week 36 in the year 2013. But, sometimes the range listed is for the European Driving Cycle (NEDC) rather than the U.S. EPA Driving Cycle. SLI batteries are not designed for deep discharging, and a full discharge can reduce the battery's lifespan. The sludge largely consists of lead sulfate, which is produced at both electrodes. These groups are determined by the organization. The 12-volt car battery is the most recycled product in the world, according to the United States Environmental Protection Agency. By changing the alloying element to calcium, more recent designs have reduced the rate of water loss. For batteries that power electric vehicles, see, rechargeable battery for starting a car engine, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, United States Environmental Protection Agency, "Automotive Charging Systems - A Short Course on How They Work", "How to Avoid Battery Explosions (Yes, They Really Happen)", "Why is there a 12 volt lead-acid battery, and how is it charged in an electric car? [27], Corrosion at the battery terminals can prevent a car from starting due to electrical resistance, which can be prevented by the proper application of dielectric grease. For this reason, automotive batteries are designed to deliver maximum current for a short period of time. This rating is required by law in Europe. Grid corrosion rates increase with temperature. Unfortunately, auto companies often do not list range and/or efficiency for their BEVs. Battery recycling of automotive batteries reduces the need for resources required for the manufacture of new batteries, diverts toxic lead from landfills, and prevents the risk of improper disposal. This page was last edited on 9 October 2020, at 06:10. (See the map.) The dashed line (3.5 miles/kWh) is my estimate for the average BEV in 2018. About 97 percent of the lead can be recovered. It was found that BEVs have about one-third WtW of gasoline cars for the U.S. Usually, the CA rating will be higher than the CCA rating. Range can be calculated as Range (miles = Battery-Capacity (kWh)*Miles/kWh. The sales-weighted average for the U.S. is 80 MPG, which will increase if electric-power sources become more emissions free. To complicate matters the European Union, Japan and India have defined another Worldwide Harmonized Light Vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP), which value lies between the NEDC and the EPA value. It identifies how many minutes the battery can deliver a constant current of 25 amps at 80°F without falling below the minimum voltage, 1.75 volts per cell, needed to keep your vehicle running. The primary wear-out mechanism is the shedding of active material from the battery plates, which accumulates at the bottom of the cells and which may eventually short-circuit the plates. Cranking amperes (CA): the amount of current a battery can provide at 32 °F (0 °C).

Marine cranking amperes (MCA): like CA, the amount of current a battery can provide at 32 °F (0 °C), and often found on batteries for boats (hence "marine") and lawn garden tractors which are less likely to be operated in conditions where ice can form. Union of Concerned Scientists has calculated the 2016 equivalent MPG for a gasoline car to equal the driving carbon emissions of a typical BEV in various regions of the U.S. Unfortunately, auto companies often do not list range and/or efficiency for their BEVs. In South Africa the code on a battery to indicate production date is part of the casing and cast into the bottom left of the cover. • Range in miles, which is a function of battery capacity and efficiency. MPGe is calculated using the EPA number that one gallon of unleaded regular gasoline when fully combusted produces 33.7 kWh of heat. The average cost per gallon for the last several years I estimate at $2.50 (vertical line). [citation needed], Battery Council International (BCI) group size specifies a battery's physical dimensions, such as length, width, and height. Most car batteries have a capacity between 550 and 1000 amperes. [31], SLI batteries are not designed for deep discharge, and their life is reduced when subjected to this.[32]. Matters are further complicated by the fact that you’ll see two-ampere ratings on most batteries: the crank amps (CA) and cold cranking amps (CCA). So the range numbers in the following graph for range vs battery-capacity for several BEVs may not all be EPA values: *Note that BEV efficiency (range) varies widely for high battery capacity. h) is a unit related to the energy storage capacity of the battery. Car Battery: What Are the Differences? A battery made in October 2015 will have a numeric code of 10-5 or an alphanumeric code of K-5. [34], This article is about batteries that start engines and power accessories. Some do not list either. [30] Sulfated batteries should be charged slowly to prevent damage. The different regions vary from 38 MPG to 191 MPG. The following graph shows how kWh/100-miles and MPGe are related to miles/kWh: The value of kWh/100-miles is useful to calculate how much energy in kWh is required to travel a specific distance in miles. I prefer miles/kWh since kWh is what I pay for and it is easy to memorize. When batteries are stored, they start losing their charge; this is due to non-current-producing chemical reactions of the electrodes with the battery acid. The average (dashed line) crosses the vertical line at about $0.035/mile. As part of global waste trade ULABs are shipped from industrialized countries to developing countries for disassembly and recuperation of the contents. ", "Marine Battery vs. Reserve Capacity (RC) RC is a general indicator of how long a new, fully charged battery can continue to operate essential accessories if the vehicle’s alternator fails. However, reviews by car reviewers often list one or both. [24][25] Also low temperatures can lead to battery failure. Typically, starting uses less than three percent of the battery capacity. Negative Ground - Will charger work on positive ground vehicles? A Car Battery Is the World's Most Recycled Product", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Automotive_battery&oldid=982608470, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2016, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Cold cranking amperes (CCA): the amount of current a battery can provide at 0 °F (−18 °C). Car batteries using lead-antimony plates require regular topping-up with pure water to replace water lost due to electrolysis and evaporation. ", "BCI Battery Service Manual 14th Edition - Download - Battery Council International", "Is revving the engine a good idea during a jump-start? Such batteries include extra electrolyte above the plates to allow for losses during the battery life. "A" is for January, "B" is for February, and so on (the letter "I" is skipped). Once a lead–acid battery ceases to hold a charge, it is deemed a used lead-acid battery (ULAB), which is classified as hazardous waste under the Basel Convention. The average (dashed line) crosses the vertical line at about $0.09/mile. Modern car batteries have reduced maintenance requirements, and may not provide caps for addition of water to the cells.

", "Positive Vs. ", "2010 Porsche 911 GT3 RS: Track-Ready, Street-Legal And More Power", "Automotive/SLI Batteries - Batteries by Fisher", "Winter Is Coming... Do You Know Your Battery's CCA Rating? The dashed line (27.4 MPG) is for the average gasoline car in the U.S. for 2016. The value of MPGe (MPG-equivalent) is useful to compare the efficiency of a BEV to a gasoline car’s MPG. This can be substantially reduced by enclosing one set of plates in plastic separator bags, made from a permeable material. Once running, the engine can recharge the battery, if the alternator and charging system are undamaged.

[33] However the recycling may be done incorrectly in unregulated environments.

Union of Concerned Scientists have calculated the “Wells-to-Wheels (WtW)” carbon emissions of average gasoline cars and average BEVs in the U.S.. Pure Earth estimates that over 12 million third world people are affected by lead contamination from ULAB processing.

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