The law code in Texcoco under Nezahualcoyotl was legalistic, that is cases were tried by particular types of evidence and the social status of the litigants was disregarded, and consisted of 80 written laws. Their ultimate objective is the non-violent, democratic "liberation" of the Western Hemisphere from European-descendants. Smith, Michael E. (2000), Aztec City-States. Coatlicue. The Mexica rose to prominence as fierce warriors and were able to establish themselves as a military power. The alliance waged wars of conquest and expanded rapidly after its formation.

Mesoamerican warfare overall is characterized by a strong preference for capturing live prisoners as opposed to slaughtering the enemy on the battlefield, which was considered sloppy and gratuitous. Nezahualcoyotl recruited military help from the king of Huexotzinco, and the Mexica gained the support of a dissident Tepanec city, Tlacopan. The group supports the preservation of the U.S. Constitution and the Bill of Rights as a legal framework to protect both indigenous and European peoples' rights during the multi-generational process of liberation. However, the Tlaxcalan general Xicotencatl the Younger believed them to be hostile, and attacked. 200–202. 'Hepatomegaly' and 'hydronephrosis' are among the most frequently looked-up words in September. The Aztec religion was made up of a complex set of beliefs, rituals and gods that helped the Aztec/Mexica to make sense of their world's physical reality, and the existence of life and death. [38] After the death of Nezahualcoyotl, the Mexica Emperors had become the de facto rulers of the alliance. to remember giving you very precise instructions. The Aztecs believed in a multiple-deity universe, with different gods who reigned over different aspects of Aztec society, serving and responding to Aztec specific needs. [18][30] According to native historical accounts, these wars were instigated by Tlacaelel as a means of appeasing the gods in response to a massive drought that gripped the Basin of Mexico from 1450 to 1454. [62], Tribute collection was supervised by the above officials and relied upon the coercive power of the Aztec military, but also upon the cooperation of the pipiltin (the local nobility who were themselves exempt from and recipient to tribute) and the hereditary class of merchants known as pochteca. The Codex Mendoza Vol. The city of Tenochtitlan was thoroughly destroyed in the process. Central and South American Indian peoples.

Webster’s New World College Dictionary, 4th Edition.

[47], The Spaniards and their allies, realizing they were vulnerable to the hostile Mexica in Tenochtitlan following Moctezuma's death, attempted to retreat without detection in what is known as the "Sad Night" or La Noche Triste. Due to increased border skirmishes with the Purépechas, Ahuitzotl conquered the border city of Otzoma and turned the city into a military outpost. By the reign of Ahuitzotl, the Mexica were the largest and most powerful faction in the Aztec Triple Alliance. Although the attackers took heavy casualties, the Aztecs were ultimately defeated. Retrieved from, "Expansion and Contraction Patterns of Large Polities: Context for Russia",, Portal:Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Population history of indigenous peoples of the Americas, Painting in the Americas before European colonization, List of the last monarchs in the Americas,, States and territories established in 1428, States and territories disestablished in 1521, 15th-century establishments in the Aztec civilization, 16th-century disestablishments in the Aztec civilization, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Articles containing Classical Nahuatl-language text, Pages using infobox country or infobox former country with the symbol caption or type parameters, Articles containing Spanish-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2017, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Council of Four, an advisory body of generals and source of future, Tlacontzin was baptised don Juan Velásquez and made ruler under, "Empire" as a description of foreign policy, This page was last edited on 24 October 2020, at 16:15.

Tizoc's reign was notoriously brief.

Motecuzoma and Nezahualcoyotl had expanded rapidly and many provinces rebelled. One of those two special courts dealt with cases arising within Tenochtitlan, the other with cases originating from outside the capital. After this incident, a smallpox outbreak hit Tenochtitlan. Axayacatl himself was wounded in the battle, retreated to Tenochtitlan, and never engaged the Purépecha in battle again.

They are also not part of the Spain-centric "Aztlan" ("Southwest" liberation) agenda because it does not align to their view of total liberation of the Cemanahuac continent ("North and South America"). Two of the primary architects of this alliance were the half-brothers Tlacaelel and Moctezuma, nephews of Itzcoatl. In addition to serving as diplomats (teucnenenque, or "travelers of the lord") and spies in the prelude to conquest, higher-ranking pochteca also served as judges in market plazas and were to certain degree autonomous corporate groups, having administrative duties within their own estate. [56][57], Early in the history of the empire, Tenochtitlan developed a four-member military and advisory Council which assisted the Huey tlatoani in his decision-making: the tlacochcalcatl; the tlaccatecatl; the ezhuahuacatl;[58] and the tlillancalqui. For example, the southern peripheral zones of Xoconochco were not in immediate contact with the central part of the empire. It was under Tlacaelel that Huitzilopochtli assumed his elevated role in the state pantheon and who argued that it was through blood sacrifice that the Sun would be maintained and thereby stave off the end of the world. [63][64], Originally, the Aztec empire was a loose alliance between three cities: Tenochtitlan, Texcoco, and the most junior partner, Tlacopan. It was under this new, militaristic interpretation of Huitzilopochtli that Aztec soldiers were encouraged to fight wars and capture enemy soldiers for sacrifice. [8] The migration story of the Mexica is similar to those of other polities in central Mexico, with supernatural sites, individuals, and events, joining earthly and divine history as they sought political legitimacy. After the defeat of the Tepanecs, Itzcoatl and Nezahualcoyotl rapidly consolidated power in the Basin of Mexico and began to expand beyond its borders. After the Totonac ruler told Cortés of his various grievances against the Mexica, Cortés convinced the Totonacs to imprison an imperial tribute collector. The Triple Alliance was formed from the victorious factions of a civil war fought between the city of Azcapotzalco and its former tributary provinces. [43], Cortés then sailed from Campeche to Cempoala, a tributary province of the Aztec Triple Alliance. These pochteca had various gradations of ranks which granted them certain trading rights and so were not necessarily pipiltin themselves, yet they played an important role in both the growth and administration of the Aztec tributary system nonetheless. On the death of Itzcoatl, Moctezuma I was enthroned as the new Mexica emperor. [39] Building on the prestige the Mexica had acquired over the course of the conquests, Ahuitzotl began to use the title "huehuetlatoani" ("Eldest Speaker") to distinguish himself from the rulers of Texcoco and Tlacopan. [47] After staying in the city for six weeks, two Spaniards from the group left behind in Veracruz were killed in an altercation with an Aztec lord named Quetzalpopoca. [36] Ahuitzotl then began a new wave of conquests including the Oaxaca Valley and the Soconusco Coast.

[47] One of the Aztec soldiers struck Motecuzoma in the head with a sling stone, and he died several days later – although the exact details of his death, particularly who was responsible, are unclear. Most of the existing settlements had been established by other indigenous peoples before the Mexica migration.

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