Enkhzul says hospitals are basically hamstrung, discharging patients into the very environment that made them sick in the first place.

Boloroo is equally motivated by compassion for those in the ger district. Annually over 120 million cubic meters of waste waster is disposed of without treatment. Dr. Enkhzul Jargal, 50, oversees the Bayanzurkh Medical Center. The city was designed to accommodate 600,000 people. A chimney pokes through a flap at the top. Claire Harbage/NPR

Climate change has threatened the ways of life for traditional pastoralist herders, as it is a driving factor of disruptive duds, also known as climatic events or natural disasters. There are large-scale harvests of both gazelles and fish for commercial use. [5], Air pollution is a problem in Mongolia's cities, especially in Ulaanbaatar, the largest and most densely populated city in Mongolia. Daily averages of particulate concentration in the air can range from two-to-three times higher than international standards. [2] Between 1996 and 2009 up to a third of rivers dried out or were impacted by drought conditions. From above, the smog appears to settle like a low-lying cloud.



[3] At least 90% of Mongolia's pastureland has experienced some level of desertification. [3], Mongolia supports an innate biodiversity, owing to its unique and often undisturbed ecosystems. Unborn children are affected too.

[3], Indoor air pollution is a problem in Mongolia, due to the burning of coal and biomass as fuels within homes, and improper ventilation. The rising temperatures will also melt high mountain glaciers, degrade permafrost, and will cause more transpiration from plants.[1]. [3], Mongolia's mining industry is linked with water pollution issues. [3] Despite this, as of 2004, the reforestation rate hangs below 15%.

[7] The major rise of automobiles in the city has corresponded with increasing levels of nitrogen dioxide. "People are tired of this pollution now.

Dr. Enkhzul Jargal, 50, oversees the Bayanzurkh Medical Center. hide caption. Realities must change on the ground if there's any hope of seeing changes in the air. "If not, I will not buy it. Mongolia has low forest resources, and due to its harsh climate, the growth of its forests is slow. The kindergarten, she hopes, is visible proof that things can change in Mongolia's ger district. In light of the ban, the government is putting an alternative product on the market made from semicoke, a byproduct of coal. Coal dependence is wreaking havoc on Mongolians' health. The family siphons electricity from a nearby power pole in the street. Ask your medical practitioner if a face mask is advisable for you.

Understand the public health crisis, the causes, and the complexity of air pollution issues and learn about what YOU can do about it. "I hate it," she mutters. Mongolia General Health Risks: Air Pollution [risk] In accordance with the World Health Organization's guidelines, the air quality in Mongolia is considered unsafe - the most recent data indicates the country's annual mean concentration of PM2.5 is 40 µg/m3, exceeding the recommended maximum of 10 µg/m3. The capital city's name, Ulaanbaatar, meaning "Red Hero," was adopted in 1924 to mark the beginning of Mongolia's Soviet-style communist era. That level was 133 times what the World Health Organization considers safe.

[2], The Mongolian government has created a National Committee to Combat Desertification and National Center to Combat Desertification. We love our city, so everybody needs to chip in," says Ulziibayar Gonchig, 35, the head of strategic planning for Ulaanbaatar's governor. The former herder now works as a cleaner, living in the ger district with her three school-age children: Uyanga Chantsal (from left), 13; Altanshagai Dorjsuren, 6; and Bujin Chantsal, 11. Mining’s share of Mongolia’s economy has doubled in a decade. Overview of environmental issues .

Additional reporting and translations were provided by Ganbat Namjilsangarav. Chantsal Vaanjir (second from left), 46, arrived in Ulaanbaatar in 2001 seeking a job. "When [residents] have a better life, a better income, it's more likely they'll improve their living conditions," she says.

Her office is wallpapered with animals to put sick children at ease. This deforestation has caused lowering of groundwater levels, flash floods, and more desertification.

Seasonal variations in pollution exist, with the highest levels occurring in the winter (December to February) due to solid fuel use.

Available data indicates that Ulaanbaatar is a city with consistently high levels of air pollution. [3], In Mongolia, over 70% of pastureland is now degraded, and the vegetation growth rate has shrunken by a factor of 5. This temperature shift is deemed responsible for an increase in grassland aridity, and as a result, a lowering of the production of biomass.

The result? It's a public health problem that defines daily routine. The government has also passed The Mongolian Law on Environmental Protection (1995) which includes ecological training, compensation for environmental damage, economic incentives for environmental protection, and NGO participation in protection. Pediatrician Enkhzul Jargal, 50, the center's director, considers pollution a violation of children's rights. Mongolia's Capital Banned Coal To Fix Its Pollution Problem. The municipal government is pushing another big idea: to extend infrastructure to the ger district.

[1], Another result of these meteorological shifts is expected to be precipitation that occurs in concentrated bursts and cannot be absorbed by the soil.


The stove is used for both heating and cooking. Two sizes of particulate matter are used to analyze air quality; fine particles with a diameter of less than 2.5 µm or PM2.5 and coarse particles with a diameter of less than 10 µm or PM10. This site complies with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information: verify here.

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Number: 13-2613755, A division of the Foundation for the Support And, especially in population centers, Mongolians deal with air and water pollution caused by industrialization. We Insist: A Timeline Of Protest Music In 2020, The Deadly Winters That Have Transformed Life For Herders In Mongolia, according to the official state news agency Montsame.

A study at one hospital calculated a 3.6-fold increase in miscarriage incidence between May and December 2011, strongly correlated with air pollutants.

In this study, improvement in particulate matter (PM) air quality was shortly studied by assessing the hourly data for the last six years, from January 2014 to February 2020.

The ger district is unplanned, lacking basic infrastructure. [8] The group participated in grassroots organizing activities and succeeded in stopping 36 out of 37 mining licenses issued along the Ongi River. Other notable laws include the Mongolian Law on Hunting (1995) that regulates the protection and proper use of hunted animals, The Mongolian Law on Natural Plants (1995) that regulates protection and restoration of plants, and The Law on Water (1995), which protects water reserves and quality. Over 250 steam boilers burn 400,000 tons of coal every year, and gers and houses with manual heating burn over 200,000 cubic meters of fuel wood every year.



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However, Mongolia's biodiversity is threatened by its growing population and demand for natural resources.

E.I. Fires saw increased regularity due to carelessness of people who entered the forest (such as through escaped campfires, military activities, agricultural machinery),[4] further deteriorating the forest cover. The black bricks are cheap and plentiful, sold in 33-pound bags on the street for about 3,000 Mongolian tugriks ($1.13). It's been this way for over a decade, giving rise to occasional protests lambasting the government and demanding action. A layer of cool air gets trapped below a layer of warm air, keeping pollutants near the ground.

She is overseeing a government-led project to expand infrastructure and central services in the most polluted neighborhoods.

Air pollution is also associated with heart attacks and strokes. The government plans to replace raw coal with fuel-efficient briquettes made from semicoke.

When planning a trip, consider health status, age, destination, length of trip and season to mitigate the effects of air pollution. But coal dependence comes at a price.

The ger development project is getting attention in Bayankhoshuu. "I like challenges.

Air quality correlates with the thermostat. Between 1990 and 2001, the government has spent $24.6 million on 14 anti-desertification projects in Mongolia.

Last winter, a report by UNICEF Mongolia deemed the situation a "child health crisis."

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Chantsal Vaanjir (second from left), 46, arrived in Ulaanbaatar in 2001 seeking a job.

For Boloroo, the quality of the air in the ger district is linked to quality of life for its residents. hide caption.

Doctors blamed it on the air pollution. But inside, the coal fire crackles and fills the ger with warmth. One-third of households live below the poverty line.

This results in vehicles adding 70 tons of pollutants to the air every year. The coal-fired power plants of Ulaanbaatar add to the city's air pollution as well. The Ongi River Movement joined with other River Movements in 2006 to form the Homeland and Water Protection Coalition. [3], The result of all of these factors, is that from 1980-2000, 10% of the forest cover in Mongolia was lost. Claire Harbage/NPR Particulate concentrations have been shown to correlate with premature death. Infants, even more so. But will that make a difference? The former herder now works as a cleaner, living in the ger district with her three school-age children: Uyanga Chantsal (from left), 13; Altanshagai Dorjsuren, 6; and Bujin Chantsal, 11. [7] In the cold seasons, the atmospheric content of carbon monoxide is 2-4 times the permissible amount and acute respiratory diseases (such as tuberculosis and other lung diseases) are reported to be higher during winter as well. hide caption.
Claire Harbage/NPR ", NPR followed up with Chantsal, the mother whose son nearly died of pneumonia, to ask whether she would convert fuel sources this winter.

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