The Philistines were the people in this part of the world with whom the Greeks and other Mediterranean peoples were most familiar. This early Canaanite script was thus the ancestor of all alphabets in the world today. [125] What later became Mandatory Palestine was in late Ottoman times divided between the Vilayet of Beirut (Lebanon) and the Sanjak of Jerusalem. It has been controlled by numerous peoples, including Ancient Egyptians, Canaanites, Israelites and Judeans, Assyrians, Babylonians, Achaemenids, ancient Greeks, the Jewish Hasmonean Kingdom, Romans, Parthians, Sasanians, Byzantines, the Arab Rashidun, Umayyad, Abbasid and Fatimid caliphates, Crusaders, Ayyubids, Mamluks, Mongols, Ottomans, the British, and modern Israelis, Jordanians, Egyptians and Palestinians. Rather than let go of these, the Jews interpreted this catastrophe in the light of their faith.
Some 77,000 of the population are Christians, in large majority belonging to the Orthodox Church, and speaking Arabic. The Canaanite city-states on the coast were subject to destructive attacks from the Sea Peoples, who had previously devastated the coasts of Asia Minor and other eastern Mediterranean. : Islam, the West and Christian Faith, "The Evolution of the Egypt-Israel Boundary: From Colonial Foundations to Peaceful Borders", "The law of belligerent occupation in the Supreme Court of Israel", "The Contemporary Law of Blockade and the Gaza Freedom Flotilla", "Shifting Ottoman Conceptions of Palestine-Part 1: Filistin Risalesi and the two Jamals", "Lack of sufficient services in Gaza could get worse without urgent action, UN warns", ibn Abdullah ibn Abdul-Muttalib ibn Hashim, Current Ummah of Islam (Ummah of Muhammad), The Origins and Evolution of the Palestine Problem, Villages depopulated during the 1948 Palestinian exodus, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Palestine_(region)&oldid=980820700, CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown, Wikipedia extended-confirmed-protected pages, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages using multiple image with manual scaled images, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2015, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, All UN member states except the United States, Belfer-Cohen, Anna & Bar-Yosef, Ofer (2000) "Early Sedentism in the Near East: a bumpy ride to village life".

Egypt lost its dominating position in Canaan as general disorder overtook the Middle East in the later 2nd millennium BCE. A centralised, unified state did not sit easily with the several Israelite tribes, however. The majority of the international community (including the UN General Assembly, the United Nations Security Council, the European Union, the International Criminal Court, and the vast majority of human rights organizations) considers Israel to be continuing to occupying Gaza, the West Bank and East Jerusalem. Between 1550 and 1400 BCE, the Canaanite cities became vassals to the Egyptian New Kingdom who held power until the 1178 BCE Battle of Djahy (Canaan) during the wider Bronze Age collapse. The Samaritans, who lived in and around Samaria (the former capital of the long-defunct kingdom of Israel) had reason to feel threatened by the returning exiles. [56][57][58][vii] The word 'Arab' at the time referred predominantly to Bedouin nomads, though Arab settlement is attested in the Judean highlands and near Jerusalem by the 5th century, and some tribes had converted to Christianity.

Their temple, however, was destroyed by the Jews. For several years, in the 260s and early 270s, the province was under the control of the separatist regime of Zenobia, Queen of Palmyra, until restored to the empire by the emperor Aurelian in 272. To the people of the time such divisions would have been meaningless, however. (2007).

[63] From 878, Palestine was ruled from Egypt by semi-autonomous rulers for almost a century, beginning with the Turkish freeman Ahmad ibn Tulun, for whom both Jews and Christians prayed when he lay dying[64] and ending with the Ikhshidid rulers.
Archaeological evidence shows that the first centuries of the 1st millennium BCE were times of prosperity for the region. "[131], The term Palestine is also sometimes used in a limited sense to refer to the parts of the Palestinian territories currently under the administrative control of the Palestinian National Authority, a quasi-governmental entity which governs parts of the State of Palestine under the terms of the Oslo Accords.[xiii]. Only a few examples of this early script have been found, and it was probably not in common use.

The Hellenistic culture which they shared was in marked contrast to the traditional culture of the native population. With the coming of Christian emperors to the throne after 324, Palestine’s status was transformed. Reproduced under Creative Commons 3.0. Since 2000 aside from a limited number of exceptions Israel has refused to add people to the Palestinian Population Registry. The exception was Judah, which, thanks to its repeated resistance to the Babylonians, experienced catastrophe. [54] The Dome of the Rock, completed in 691, was the world's first great work of Islamic architecture. The fall of Judah came to be seen as divine punishment for the failure of the Israelite rulers and people to worship Yahweh to the exclusion of all other gods. In reaction to this, prophets in both kingdoms called on the people and their rulers to remain faithful to their monotheistic faith. From 1987 to 1993, the First Palestinian Intifada against Israel took place, which included the Declaration of the State of Palestine in 1988 and ended with the 1993 Oslo Peace Accords and the creation of the Palestinian National Authority. One exception was that he liberated the ten Hellenized cities of the Decapolis from Jewish rule, restoring to them their own self-government. The destruction of the kingdom of Israel had a deep impact on the kingdom of Judah.

Even the name “Judea” disappeared as a Roman administrative label, with the province now being called Syria Palaestina. His foreign policy centred around the expansion of trade, and he is even said to have received a visit from the queen of the distant kingdom of Saba (“Sheba”), in southern Arabia. [46][47] Between 73–63 BCE, the Roman Republic extended its influence into the region in the Third Mithridatic War, conquering Judea in 63 BCE, and splitting the former Hasmonean Kingdom into five districts. The exiles embarked on the process of collecting and editing many of their writings and oral traditions, and it was at this time that the Jewish Bible (the Christian Old Testament) began to take shape. The division of Israel into two kingdoms weakened them both. The northern kingdom of Israel starts appearing in non-Biblical records from at least by the second half of the 10th century, the southern kingdom of Judah somewhat later, from the mid-8th century onwards. In and around most of the towns there was a considerable number of vineyards, orchards, and vegetable gardens.

Palestine (Arabic: فلسطين‎ Filasṭīn, Falasṭīn, Filisṭīn; Greek: Παλαιστίνη, Palaistinē; Latin: Palaestina; Hebrew: פלשתינה‎ Palestina) is a geographic region in Western Asia usually considered to include Israel, the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, and in some definitions, parts of western Jordan. The old Philistine cities, now under Greek-style city councils, became centres of Hellenistic civilization. Herod reigned over Judea until his death in 4 BCE. Facing down Hyrcanus’ enemies, he manoeuvred himself into dominating the ruler. Sennacherib during his Babylonian war,

The Kingdom of Israel emerged as an important local power by the 10th century BCE before falling to the Neo-Assyrian Empire in 722 BCE. [149], Coordinates: 31°37′31″N 35°08′43″E / 31.6253°N 35.1453°E / 31.6253; 35.1453, The name is found throughout recorded history. Antipater became a close friend of Pompey’s; and with Pompey’s backing, Antipater was soon the effective master of Judea.

"Thus," writes Dio Cassius, "nearly the whole of Judaea was made desolate. The Bar Kokhba revolt in the 2nd century CE saw a major shift in the population of Palestine. The territories of Israel’s historic neighbours the Edomites, Moabites and Ammonites were under intensifying pressure from Arab tribes, who were coming into the eastern hill country with their flocks. [141] McCarthy estimates the non-Jewish population of Palestine at 452,789 in 1882; 737,389 in 1914; 725,507 in 1922; 880,746 in 1931; and 1,339,763 in 1946. Between 259–272, the region fell under the rule of Odaenathus as King of the Palmyrene Empire. They appear in Egyptian history as the “Hyksos”. The previous, widely-held, assumption that the God of Israel would protect his chosen people and David’s royal line for ever and under all circumstances, was drastically redefined so that the Jews began to look forward to a Messiah, a son of David, who would deliver the people and Jerusalem once and for all time from foreign oppression. The Fall of the Kingdom of Israel the Palestinian territories). On his death in 92 CE his kingdom too was incorporated into the Roman province. (It should be noted that scholars date the start of the Roman Empire to 27 BCE, when the Roman leader Octavian took the name Augustus. Judea’s new rulers were also hostile to Rome, and invited the Parthians, Rome’s great enemies, to occupy Judea. [145], According to the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics evaluations, in 2015 the Palestinian population of the West Bank was approximately 2.9 million and that of the Gaza Strip was 1.8 million. When comparative peace returned to the region, by around 300 BCE, Judea and its neighbours were under the control of Ptolemy, the ruler of Egypt. Their cultural distinctiveness had long since been submerged into the wider Aramaic culture of the region. During the Iron Age the Israelites established two related kingdoms, Israel and Judah. ", "Textbooks in the Palestinian National Authority", "Autonomous Egypt from Ibn Tulun to Kafur 868-969", "Demography in Israel/Palestine: Trends, Prospects, Policy Implications", "Some Observations on the Name of Palestine", "Palestinia Hagiography (Fourth-Eighth Centuries)", "The Growing Economic Involvement of Palestine with the West, 1865–1914", "The Smoking Gun: Arab immigration into Palestine, 1922–1931, "The Palestinians and 1948: the underlying causes of failure", Civilisations in Conflict? Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu (L) and Greek Prime Minister Alexis Tsipras, November 25, 2015.

[67] Between 1071 and 1073, Palestine was captured by the Great Seljuq Empire,[68] only to be recaptured by the Fatimids in 1098. This soon engulfing the entire province, and became a major challenge to Rome’s hold on its eastern frontiers.

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