Peruvian literature is rooted in the oral traditions of pre-Columbian civilizations. He said the name Birú was that of a common Amerindian happened upon by the crew of a ship on an exploratory mission for governor Pedro Arias de Ávila, and went on to relate more instances of misunderstandings due to the lack of a common language.[24]. In the Peruvian Amazon, numerous indigenous languages are spoken, including Asháninka, Bora, and Aguaruna. During his presidency, Prime Minister Ana Jara and her cabinet were successfully censured, which was the first time in 50 years that a cabinet had been forced to resign from the Peruvian legislature. In order to avoid a military confrontation San Martin met the newly appointed viceroy, José de la Serna, and proposed to create a constitutional monarchy, a proposal that was turned down. For all other years: latest year annual percentage change equivalent assuming homogeneous change in the preceding five year period, calculated through reverse compounding. The National University of San Marcos, founded on 12 May 1551, during the Viceroyalty of Peru, is the first officially established and the oldest continuously functioning university in the Americas. Peru formally proclaimed independence in 1821, and following the foreign military campaigns of José de San Martín and Simón Bolívar, and the decisive battle of Ayacucho, Peru completed its independence in 1824. He then revised the constitution; called new congressional elections; and implemented substantial economic reform, including privatization of numerous state-owned companies, creation of an investment-friendly climate, and sound management of the economy. [46] The new laws provoked Túpac Amaru II's rebellion and other revolts, all of which were suppressed. In the ensuing years, the country enjoyed relative economic and political stability, which ended shortly before the War of the Pacific (1879–1884) with Chile. They are descendants of the Spanish colonizers and other Europeans such as Germans, Italians, British, French, and Croatians (see also Croats) who arrived in the 19th and 20th centuries. [154] Arts stagnated after independence until the emergence of Indigenismo in the early 20th century. Fujimori implemented drastic measures that caused inflation to drop from 7,650% in 1990 to 139% in 1991. [24], As part of the recent push in Peru to recognize and integrate indigenous into national life, Kuczynski's government is supporting the use of indigenous languages in Peru, with the state-run TV station starting to broadcast in December 2016 a daily news program in Quechua and in April 2017 one in Aymara. In 1879, Peru entered the War of the Pacific which lasted until 1884. Amerindians who live in the Andean highlands speak Quechua and Aymara and are ethnically distinct from the diverse indigenous groups who live on the eastern side of the Andes and in the tropical lowlands adjacent to the Amazon basin. Catholic festivities like Corpus Christi, Holy Week and Christmas sometimes blend with Amerindian traditions. Concerned about the economy, the increasing terrorist threat from Sendero Luminoso and MRTA, and allegations of official corruption, Alberto Fujimori assumed presidency in 1990. The only southern city with a significant white population is Arequipa. The system is highly centralized, with the Ministry of Education appointing all public school teachers. Spaniards introduced writing in the 16th century; colonial literary expression included chronicles and religious literature. Peruvian national identity was forged during this period, as Bolivarian projects for a Latin American Confederation floundered and a union with Bolivia proved ephemeral.[51]. Decorative work from this era, approximately the 9th century BCE, was symbolic and religious in nature. Rivers that drain into Lake Titicaca are generally short and have a large flow. Variants include the walaycho, chillador, chinlili, and the larger and lower-tuned charangon. Immediately on 26 October they took control of the town of Pisco. [27] The oldest known complex society in Peru, the Norte Chico civilization, flourished along the coast of the Pacific Ocean between 3,000 and 1,800 BCE. If you use our datasets on your site or blog, we ask that you provide attribution via a link back to this page. Other indicators visualized on maps: (In English only, for now) Adolescent fertility rate (births per 1,000 women ages 15-19) The Spanish Empire conquered the region in the 16th century and established a viceroyalty that encompassed most of its South American territories, with its capital in Lima. [44] Two of the most important indigenous rebellions against the Spanish were that of Juan Santos Atahualpa in 1742, and Rebellion of Túpac Amaru II in 1780 around the highlands near Cuzco.[49]. [97][98], Peru maintains an integrated relationship with other South American nations, and is a member of various South American intergovernmental agreements, more recently the Organization of American States, Mercosur, the Andean Community of Nations, the Pacific Alliance, and the APEC. [31] The Chimu were the great city builders of pre-Inca civilization; as loose confederation of walled cities scattered along the coast of northern Peru, the Chimu flourished from about 1140 to 1450. The Moche, who reached their apogee in the first millennium CE, were renowned for their irrigation system which fertilized their arid terrain, their sophisticated ceramic pottery, their lofty buildings, and clever metalwork. [65] The President appoints ministers who oversee the 18 ministries of the state, including the Prime Minister, into the Cabinet. License : CC BY-4.0 Peru is home to one of the oldest institutions of higher learning in the New World. The Highlands above the tree-line known as puna is home to bushes, cactus, drought-resistant plants such as ichu, and the largest species of bromeliad – the spectacular Puya raimondii. Spanish is spoken natively by 82.6% of the population, Quechua by 13.9%, and Aymara by 1.7%, while other languages are spoken by the remaining 1.8%. [150], Many of the Peruvian toponyms have indigenous sources. Burials from the Paracas Necropolis also yielded complex textiles, many produced with sophisticated geometric patterns. [44] Two of the most important indigenous rebellions against the Spanish were that of Juan Santos Atahualpa in 1742, and Rebellion of Túpac Amaru II in 1780 around the highlands near Cuzco.[49]. [147], Roman Catholicism has been the predominant faith in Peru for centuries, albeit religious practices have a high degree of syncretism with indigenous traditions. Unlike the guitar, it has been transformed by Peruvian players over the years, changing from a 12-string, 6-course instrument to one having 12 to 16 strings in a mere four courses. [137], The 2017 census for the first time included a question on ethnic self-identification. Peru ranks high in social freedom; it is an active member of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Pacific Alliance, the Trans-Pacific Partnership and the World Trade Organization; and is considered as a middle power. The population of Peru is expected to grow by 378,000 in 2020 and reach 33,686,000 in … 1980". The 2019 population density in Peru is 25 people per Km 2 (66 people per mi 2), calculated on a total land area of 1,280,000 Km2 (494,211 sq. Amerindian religious traditions continue to play a major role in the beliefs of Peruvians. Peru has planned to be fully integrated into the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) by 2021, attributing its economic success and efforts to strengthen institutions as meeting factors to be a part of the OECD. Please check your download folder. The per capita annual income of Peruvians fell to $720 (below the level of 1960) and Peru's GDP dropped 20% at which national reserves were a negative $900 million. It lies wholly in the Southern Hemisphere, its northernmost extreme reaching to 1.8 minutes of latitude or about 3.3 kilometres (2.1 mi) south of the equator, covers 1,285,216 km2 (496,225 sq mi) of western South America. [68], In the Congress of Peru, there are 130 Members of Congress from 25 administrative divisions, determined by respective population, elected to five-year terms. [131] Recent economic growth has been fueled by macroeconomic stability, improved terms of trade, and rising investment and consumption. World Bank. During the 17th and 18th centuries, the Baroque Style also dominated the field of plastic arts. The official language of the empire was Quechua,[38] although hundreds of local languages and dialects were spoken. This internal power struggle contributed to the success of the liberating army. The liberation movement started in Argentina where autonomous juntas were created as a result of the loss of authority of the Spanish government over its colonies. "Andean Peru". Bolivia invoked its alliance with Peru against Chile. After years of preliminary exploration and military conflicts, it was the first step in a long campaign that took decades of fighting but ended in Spanish victory and colonization of the region known as the Viceroyalty of Peru with its capital at Lima, which was then known as "La Ciudad de los Reyes" (The City of Kings). [61][62] It is also a unitary republic, in which the central government holds the most power and can create administrative divisions. © Copyright - All rights reserved -, countries (and dependencies) by population, World Population Prospects: The 2019 Revision, Latin America and the Caribbean Population, The population density in Peru is 26 per Km. Total population of Peru from 2008 to 2018, by gender (in million inhabitants) [Graph]. [15] Peru has the second largest population of people of Japanese descent in Latin America after Brazil and the largest population of Chinese descent in Latin America. Ranging from the Norte Chico civilization starting in 3500 BCE, the oldest civilization in the Americas and one of the five cradles of civilization, to the Inca Empire, the largest state in the pre-Columbian Americas, the territory now including Peru has one of the longest histories of civilization of any country, tracing its heritage back to the 4th millennia BCE. [168] African contributions to Peruvian music include its rhythms and the cajón, a percussion instrument. The name of the country may be derived from Birú, the name of a local ruler who lived near the Bay of San Miguel, Panama City, in the early 16th century. Originally Chile committed to a referendum for the cities of Arica and Tacna to be held years later, in order to self determine their national affiliation. 1980". After fighting for the independence of the Viceroyalty of Rio de la Plata, José de San Martín created the Army of the Andes and crossed the Andes in 21 days. Peru’s population growth rate is 1.42% thanks to positive net migration … Blom, Deborah E. and John W. Janusek. [39] The Incas considered their King, the Sapa Inca, to be the "child of the sun."[40]. During the 17th and 18th centuries, the Baroque Style also dominated the field of plastic arts. The name of the country may be derived from Birú, the name of a local ruler who lived near the Bay of San Miguel, Panama City, in the early 16th century. "Total population of Peru from 2008 to 2018, by gender (in million inhabitants)." South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Learn how and when to remove this template message, "El Perú tiene una población de 31 millones 488 mil 625 habitantes", United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, "World Population Prospects - Population Division - United Nations", "United Nations Statistics Division - Demographic and Social Statistics", "World Population Prospects – Population Division – United Nations", "MEASURE DHS: Demographic and Health Surveys", "Planeamiento Urbano – Perú: Áreas metropolitanas (Pag.

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