Researchers have acknowledged that there may need to be area-specific behavioral matrices developed for living, recreation, and medical areas (Sprague et al., 2013). As with other survey research, the current study also relies on respondent (i.e., principal) views of current school practices and did not involve direct observation, interview, or record review.

To establish an initial sampling frame of eligible JJ facilities, we used the 2013 Directory of Adult & Juvenile Correctional Departments (American Correctional Association, 2013), the most comprehensive directory available of U.S. juvenile facilities. Beyond initial training, follow-up was relatively infrequent with about one quarter of education and security staff receiving no follow-up training.

Analyses of contingency tables were not possible given the nature of many of the survey items (i.e., Choose all that apply), and thus comparisons by facility type, geographic region, or for facilities reporting alignment with a PBIS framework (versus not utilizing a systematic framework for behavioral supports) were not possible in this study. Facilities should view and learn from model JJ programs that implement PBIS with fidelity. Secure care facilities “typically serve youth committed to longer term confinement after adjudication and disposition” (U.S. We conducted comparisons between respondents and nonrespondents at the school level using information available from the 2013 Directory of Adult & Juvenile Correctional Departments and state websites. Two questions addressed broad approaches to youth behavior. Team members were varied, with typical members including classroom teachers (n = 86), administrators (n = 84), and case workers/counselors (n = 73; see Table 4).

According to a 2012 report from the National Evaluation and Technical Assistance Center for Children and Youth Who Are Neglected, Delinquent, or At-Risk (NDTAC), 10 states report ongoing PBIS implementation within JJ facilities (Read & Lampron, 2012). It is encouraging that JJ facilities commonly use and post positively stated expectations and related consequences. Routine follow-up training sessions were also provided throughout the year to security staff (n = 85); education, treatment, and housing staff (n = 87); and students (n = 45). Sprague, Jolivette, and Nelson (2014) further emphasized the use of a data-based, facility-wide action plan that exhibits a consensus and prioritizes issues and responsibilities for enacting PBIS activities. The infrequent use of a multiyear prevention-oriented plan, combined with the relatively infrequent use of proactive supports at any level may suggest a lack of understanding or guidance on essential attributes of PBIS (Jolivette & Nelson, 2010; Nelson et al., 2009; Read & Lampron, 2012).

Based on section-level CVI values, an average CVI was computed, as well as a modified kappa statistic for each section to adjust for random chance (Wynd, Schmidt, & Schaefer, 2003). The current 29-item survey of JJ principals identified facility characteristics, as well as behavioral approaches, practices, and priorities aligned with PBIS implementation.

Other than the teacher, corrections officers (n = 83) and case workers/counselors (n = 83) were the most frequently identified persons to provide direct behavioral support to students. Simply select your manager software from the list below and click on download. A primary area for future JJ research relates to the complication of varied expectations and consequences across settings within the facility (i.e., school, living units, recreations areas, cafeteria, etc.). However, PBIS is beneficial for all students and provides effective Tier I interventions as well. Team participants were varied, although teachers and administrators were commonly listed members. We employed specific procedures to increase response rates and minimize nonresponse error, including (a) multiple contacts and reminders to participants (i.e., an introductory letter, five survey mailings, follow-up phone calls beginning after the second mailing), (b) directions provided on the front page for completing the survey, (c) multiple ways for respondents to complete the survey (e.g., hard copy, online), (d) university sponsorship was identified on all project documents, and (e) incentive provided at the time of the first survey mailing (i.e., the first mailing included a US$5.00 gift card). Many facilities do not have consistent expectations and consequences, but it is unclear of their necessity, and the effect of these inconsistencies.

Assurance of confidentiality and anonymity was also provided to respondents (Dillman et al., 2009). Noticeably, only about two thirds of schools with behavior support teams noted that mental health professionals, correctional officers, or special educators were on the team. Phone verification checks included the following questions: (a) Is your facility a secure care or combined detention-commitment facility? When assisted, they are commonly supported by a corrections officer or counselor. PBIS creates schools where all students succeed.

For example, just two thirds of all responding principals reported schoolwide preparations and classroom-level preparations for staff and student recovery and/or re-engagement, and only half noted the existence of any prevention/mitigation strategies. Although most staff received initial crisis training, just 70 principals reported that youth were trained in what to do when a crisis occurred.

Despite widespread support by researchers and policy makers, it is clear that a great deal of research is needed to develop a more in-depth understanding of the complexities and effects of PBIS implementation in this setting. Because seclusion (and restraint) practices are sometimes used for behaviors that do not place the student or others at risk of harm or injury, their use should be regulated and “implemented only (a) as safety measures (b) within a comprehensive behavior support plan (c) by highly trained personnel and (d) with public, accurate, and continuous data related to fidelity of implementation and impact on behavioral outcomes” (Horner & Sugai, 2009, p. 1). A codebook was used throughout data entry to ensure constancy of decision making (Czaja & Blair, 2005). First, an advisory panel of experts in the fields of positive behavior supports and education of incarcerated juveniles reviewed and made recommendations regarding the validity of the survey instrument. With the aforementioned implementation gaps for key components of a multitiered system of behavioral support, there is a need for facilities to obtain this type of formal feedback on their behavior support processes. For example, to maintain a survey of manageable length, our study does not address universal and comprehensive screening procedures, or the cultural and contextual relevance of components of the behavior system.

The Departments further advocate for the implementation of a multitiered system of behavior supports, for which there is increasing evidence of effectively improving youth behavior (e.g., Bradshaw, Mitchell, & Leaf, 2010; Horner et al., 2014; Horner et al., 2009). Also, 61.7% of principals reported that the behavior support team had observed at least one other schoolwide behavior program.

Yet, only 118 of the 143 responding principals reported the existence of a schoolwide crisis plan. (, Flannery, K. B., Fenning, P., Kato, M. M., McIntosh, K. (, Ford, J. D., Chapman, J., Connor, D. F., Cruise, K. R. (, Freeman, J., Simonsen, B., McCoach, D. B., Sugai, G., Lombardi, A., Horner, R. (, Gagnon, J. C., Barber, B. R., Van Loan, C., Leone, P. (, Gagnon, J. C., Houchins, D. E., Murphy, K. M. (, Gagnon, J. C., Rockwell, S., Scott, T. M. (, George, M. P., George, N. L., Kern, L., Fogt, J.

Critique and recommendations, Youth with disabilities in juvenile corrections: A national survey, An exploratory survey of the perceived value of coaching activities to support PBIS implementation in secure juvenile education settings, Developmental incompetence, due process, and juvenile justice policy, Tertiary-tier PBIS in alternative, residential and correctional school settings: Considering intensity in the delivery of evidence-based practice, National Center for Mental Health and Juvenile Justice, Alternative setting-wide positive behavior support, Applying positive behavioral interventions and supports in alternative education programs and secure juvenile facilities, Adopting and adapting PBIS for secure juvenile justice settings: Lessons learned, From rehabilitation to retribution: Examining public policy paradigms and personnel education patterns in corrections, Voices from the field: Stakeholder perspectives on PBIS implementation in alternative education settings, Two quantitative approaches for estimating content validity, Hammill Institute on Disabilities.

The broad purpose of PBIS is to improve the effectiveness, efficiency and equity of schools and other agencies. Concerns with the approach to behavioral monitoring also indicate key recommendations for practice. The Other responses (n = 15, 11.2%), included as needed (n = 8), annually (n = 3), quarterly (n = 1), biannual (n = 1) and did not know/not sure (n = 2). Because multitiered supports underlie a PBIS framework, principals were asked which approaches were used at specific support levels. (, Nelson, C. M., Sprague, J. R., Jolivette, K., Smith, C. R., Tobin, T. J.

Overwhelmingly, principals reported the existence of expectations and consequences in their schools/facilities (n = 139, 97.2%). We developed the initial pool of survey items by operationalizing specific domains of PBIS implementation activities outlined in the Facility-Wide Evaluation Tool (FET v. 5.0; Nelson, 2009), the School-wide Benchmarks of Quality assessment (Kincaid, Childs, & Sugai, 2010) and the SW-PBIS Tiered Fidelity Inventory (Algozzine et al., 2014), as well as by reviewing the literature on activities associated with PBIS implementation in schools. Departments of Education and Justice, 2014, American Civil Liberties Union [ACLU], 2014, Molloy, Moore, Trail, Van Epps, & Hopfer, 2013, Jolivette, Boden, Sprague, Ennis, & Kimball, 2015, Jolivette, Kimball, Boden, & Sprague, 2016, Quinn, Rutherford, Leone, Osher, & Poirier, 2005, National Commission on Correctional Health Care (2015), Couvillon, Peterson, Ryan, Scheuermann, & Stegall, 2010, OSEP, Technical Assistance Center on PBIS (2015), Swain-Bradway, Swoszowski, Boden, & Sprague, 2013,,,,,

Across tiers, a majority of respondents noted the existence of systems of reinforcement, as well as sanctions for all youth.

This sequence is an example of a feasible alternative to the common practice of secluding youth. Crisis prevention and management are key components of any residential program, such as JJ, that serves a large faction of youth with emotional and behavioral disorders (Nunno, Holden, & Leidy, 2003). (, Couvillon, M., Peterson, R. L., Ryan, J. The use of screening tools to identify youth risk factors (e.g., Massachusetts Youth Screening-2 (MAYSI-2), Child and Adolescent Functional Assessment Scale (CAFAS), Global Appraisal of Individual Needs-Short Screener (GAIN-SS), Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale (RADS), Adolescent Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory-A2 (SASSI-A2); n = 78, n = 66), use of diagnostic behavioral and/or mental health assessments (e.g., Behavior Assessment for Children-2 (BASC-2), Conners Comprehensive Rating Scales-3, Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA), Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale-2, n = 65, n = 61) or “Other” identification procedures (n = 7, n = 4) were less frequently reported.

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