To study the influence of reinforcements and estimate the impact of their effect on resistivity measurements on concrete, we model their contribution by finite element numerical analysis. It is most widely used metal because soft its high conductivity (i.e., low resistivity), Silver has the lowest resistivity but due to its high cost it is not used as conducting material. Manganin and constantan are usually used for making wire-wound precision resistance for measuring instruments, shunts for electrical measuring instruments, resistance boxes, standard resistance coils and coils for precision electrical measuring instruments.

For windings of electrical machines and transformers, copper is preferred to aluminium. Oxide film insulation is extensively used in electrolytic capacitors. This is commonly measured across the opposite faces of a one-meter cube of material and described as an ohm meter (Ω⋅m). Nichrome (80% Ni and 20% Cr) and Kanthal (69% Fe, 23% Cr, 6% Al and 2% Co) are used for heating elements (for electric heaters, electric ovens, electric iron, and room heaters) up to 1300°C. Graphite, by virtue of its high sublimation temperature and good fabrication properties, is also widely used upto 1800°C. When alternating current flows in steel wire, its resistivity increases and power losses are much higher than when direct current flows, due to the magnetic properties of steel. Aluminium occurs in abundance on earth’s surface, it is available in various forms such as oxides, sulphates, silicates, phosphates, etc. Aluminium conductors used for high voltage systems, long spans, are usually reinforced with steel, which gives high tensile strength to overhead lines. Hence copper and aluminium are not suitable for this purpose. Due to low mechanical strength, it cannot be drawn into very thin wire. For controlling of current such as rheostats. © 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Each has a single valence electron that moves with little resistance and causes a strong repelling reaction. Report a Violation 11. Privacy Policy 9. The resistivity is about 1.65 times greater than copper. So, although they can conduct electricity, they are inefficient at the task. These alloys have also good resistance to atmosphere corrosion, another desirable property in a resistor. Aluminum is a white metal with bluish tinge and is very light in weight (Cu = 3.5 Al), which is its chief asset. The steel reinforced aluminium conductor is being extensively used for long span transmission lines. Hence for winding of electrical machines, copper is preferred as compared to aluminium due to higher tensile strength and lower resistivity of copper in comparison with aluminium. Constantan (60% Cu and 40% Ni) is another such alloy. Table 6.7 indicates the properties of the some of the conductor and resistor materials. Steel is not very often used as a conducting material because of its low electrical conductivity, in spite of the fact that it has higher mechanical properties and low cost. Steel overhead conductors, due to less electrical conductivity, are used only to transfer small amount of power. Image Guidelines 4. Its electrical conductivity is next to copper. Source Code: 1 - CSNDT 2 - Eddy Current Testing Manual on Eddy Current Method 3 - NDT Magazine Sept/Oct 1955, Cosgrove Article RESIST. Annealed copper is obtained by heating at specific temperature and then cooling.

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