While there were instances of similar behavior by British soldiers, since Portugal was their ally, such crimes were generally investigated and those found punished. Actual production of essential raw materials or energy supplies fell far short of stated goals despite the high priority attached to redeveloping the Ukrainian economy. The effects of the systematic destruction by the Soviets on industrial production are shown in Table 2. Any assets that could be used by the enemy may be targeted, which usually includes obvious weapons, transport vehicles, communication sites, and industrial resources. Forces and resources of the European combatants, 1939, The Baltic states and the Russo-Finnish War, 1939–40, The war in the west, September 1939–June 1940, The invasion of the Low Countries and France, Italy’s entry into the war and the French Armistice, The Atlantic and the Mediterranean, 1940–41, Pearl Harbor and the Japanese expansion, to July 1942, Developments from autumn 1941 to spring 1942, Allied strategy and controversies, 1940–42, The Germans’ summer offensive in southern Russia, 1942, The Solomons, Papua, Madagascar, the Aleutians, and Burma, July 1942–May 1943, Montgomery’s Battle of el-Alamein and Rommel’s retreat, 1942–43, Stalingrad and the German retreat, summer 1942–February 1943, The invasion of northwest Africa, November–December 1942, The Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and the North Sea, 1942–45, The Eastern Front, February–September 1943, The Southwest and South Pacific, June–October 1943, The Allied landings in Europe and the defeat of the Axis powers, Developments from autumn 1943 to summer 1944, Sicily and the fall of Mussolini, July–August 1943, The Allies’ invasion of Italy and the Italian volte-face, 1943, The western Allies and Stalin: Cairo and Tehrān, 1943, The Eastern Front, October 1943–April 1944, The war in the Pacific, October 1943–August 1944, The Burmese frontier and China, November 1943–summer 1944, Developments from summer 1944 to autumn 1945, The Allied invasions of western Europe, June–November 1944, Allied policy and strategy: Octagon (Quebec II) and Moscow, 1944, The Philippines and Borneo, from September 1944, The German offensive in the west, winter 1944–45, The Soviet advance to the Oder, January–February 1945, The end of the Japanese war, February–September 1945. It was basically a policy which unscrupulously used the civilian population as a strategic pawn. This was just 16 percent of prewar capacity.

(Table 4). And the Russian civilians who had attached themselves to us alone numbered many hundreds of thousands. This included 7,000 tractors, 20,000 generators, 250,000 steel plows, and 3,000,000 scythes. [33], 16 March 1942 (Report by the commander of the military rear central areas): In the large cities (the food situation) continues to be unsatisfactory and in Kharkov it is catastrophic. [23], Shivaji's son, Sambhaji Maharaj, was detested throughout the Mughal Empire for his scorched-earth tactics until he and his men were captured by Muqarrab Khan and his Mughal Army contingent of 25,000. The second case shows actual military value: during the Great Gallic War the Gauls under Vercingetorix planned to lure the Roman armies into Gaul and then trap and obliterate them. The system of punitive destruction of property and subjugation of people when accompanying a military campaign was known as vastatio. Muawiyah also sent Sufyan ibn Awf to Iraq to burn the crops and homes of Ali's supporters.[9]. The refortified fortress would have made an excellent base for raiding northern Mercia, but the Mercians are recorded as having taken the drastic measure of destroying all crops and livestock in the surrounding countryside to starve the Vikings out. The strict scorched-earth policy made him ask on 29 July 1812 the people of Jujuy to "show their heroism" and to join the march of the army under his command "if, as you assure, you want to be free". Piercing the northern border, Guderian’s tanks raced 50 miles beyond the frontier on the first day of the invasion and were at Minsk, 200 miles beyond it, on June 27. By comparison: The German worker attained a net production of 4,000 RM in the year 1936.[37]. Letter from the Reichsminister fuer die besetzten Ostgebiete dated 5 August 1942 to Ministerialdirektor Riecke concerning the food supply of the civilian population in the Occupied Eastern Territories (. However, anything useful to the advancing enemy may be targeted, including food stores and agricultural areas, water sources, and even the local people themselves, though that last has been banned under the 1977 Geneva Conventions.[a]. As a result, 15-20 million civilians died of epidemics, hunger, overwork, lack of housing, lack of clothing and the brutal Siberian winter. The Soviets also destroyed or evacuated most of their rolling stock (railroad cars), thus depriving the Germans of the use of the Soviet rail system, since Soviet railroad track was of a different gauge than German track and German rolling stock was consequently useless on it. Also, between January 1939 and June 1941 the natural excess of births over deaths added another 7-8 million people. [22] His forces looted traders and businessmen from Aurangzeb's Mughal Empire and burnt down his cities, but they were strictly ordered not to rape or hurt the innocent civilians and not to cause any sort of disrespect to any of the religious institutes. Equipment worth one billion RM was imported from the Reich for the mining, energy and manufacturing sectors alone. It was a sort of military promenade, requiring very little military skill in the performance, and as little personal prowess, as well trained union troops were deployed against defenseless citizens."[38]. Well, to admit that the Soviets lost almost 20 million civilians rather than 6-7 million during the Second World War would place the responsibility for most of the non-military losses on the Soviets themselves.

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