Turkey is one of the world's top ten destination countries, with the highest percentage of foreign visitors arriving from Germany and Russia in recent years. Mustafa Kemal and the Turkish War of Independence, 1919–23, The Fundamental Law and abolition of the sultanate, World War II and the postwar era, 1938–50, Military intervention and coalition governments, AKP challenges Kemalist, military entrenchment, An emboldened Erdoğan and the AKP face resistance, AKP under pressure: failed coup attempt, crackdown on dissidents, and economic crisis, Early Cold War era: Western-oriented policy and membership in NATO and CTO, 1974 Cyprus crisis, cooling of relations with the West, and the thawing of relations with the Soviet Union, Neoliberalism, attempt to join the European Union, and the “zero problems” doctrine, Regional activism, the Arab Spring, and the Syrian Civil War, Central Intelligence Agency - The World Factbook - Turkey, Turkey - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), Turkey - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Pasha, a military commander who had distinguished himself during the Battle of Gallipoli, the Turkish War of Independence (1919–1923) was waged with the aim of revoking the terms of the Treaty of Sèvres (1920). Eisenstadt, "The Kemalist Regime and Modernization: Some Comparative and Analytical Remarks," in J. Landau, ed., Atatürk and the Modernisation of Turkey, Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1984, 3–16. [77] From the 16th to the early 20th centuries, the Ottoman Empire also fought twelve wars with the Russian Tsardom and Empire. The percentage of Christians in Turkey fell from 17.5% (three million followers) in a population of 16 million to 2.5% percent in the early 20th century. Demographically, Turkey is an increasingly young and affluent country and, as such, has tremendous need for education. [468], Turkish painting, in the Western sense, developed actively starting from the mid 19th century. Between 1923 and 2018, Turkey was a parliamentary representative democracy. From the second half of the 18th century onwards, the Ottoman Empire began to decline. 14 million people in Turkey use Facebook, making it the third-largest country in the world to use the social networking site. [22] In an effort to consolidate the weakening social and political foundations of the empire, Mahmud II started a period of modernisation in the early 19th century, bringing reforms in all areas of the state including the military and bureaucracy, along with the emancipation of all citizens. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. [350] TAEK is the official nuclear energy institution of Turkey. [519][520] In the 19th and early 20th centuries, Ottoman Turkish oil wrestling champions such as Koca Yusuf, Nurullah Hasan and Kızılcıklı Mahmut acquired international fame in Europe and North America by winning world heavyweight wrestling championship titles. Half of the country’s population is under 30, and Turkey has a higher expected college graduation rate than Italy. Hellenization started during the era of Alexander the Great and continued into the Byzantine era. [360] The largest city in Turkey, Istanbul, is also the largest city in Europe by population, and the third-largest city in Europe in terms of size. A long succession of political entities existed in Asia Minor over the centuries. ", "Cyprus: EU 'appeasement' of Turkey in exploration row will go nowhere", "Turkey threatens Greece over disputed Mediterranean territorial claims", "Turkish Armed Forces Defense Organization", "Deniz Kuvvetlerinden TCG Trakya açıklaması", United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Directorate for Movements of Persons, Migration and Consular Affairs – Asylum and Migration Division, "EBCO: European Bureau for Conscientious Objection", "Financial and Economic Data Relating to NATO Defence", "Contribution of Turkish Armed Forces to Peace Support Operations", "Turkey finalizes military training base in Somalia", "Turkey trains Kurdish peshmerga forces in fight against Islamic State", "Seeing shared threats, Turkey sets up military base in Qatar", "Turkey to open its largest military base in Somalia", "The World's Most And Least Peaceful Countries in 2016", "European Court of Human Rights: Turkey Ranks First in Violations in between 1959–2011", "Human rights in Turkey: still a long way to go to meet accession criteria", "Lice'nin Fis köyünde PKK'nın kuruluşunu kutladılar", "Turkish lecturer to be put on trial for posing exam question on PKK leader", "The European Court of Human Rights: Case of Benzer and others v. Turkey", "Police arrest and assistance of a lawyer", "Justice Comes from European Court for a Kurdish Journalist", Turkish parliament moves to strip lawmakers' immunity from prosecution, "Turkey orders 70 army officers detained over Gulen links – CNN Turk", "Turkey arrests German for spreading Kurdish propaganda: Anadolu", Erdogan Renews Putsch Purge With Targets in Media, Academia, From soldiers to midwives, Turkey dismisses 15,000 more after coup bid, Turkish court orders release of journalists during their trial, "Turkey's crackdown propels number of journalists in jail worldwide to record high", "Russia, China and Turkey top yearly list of music freedom violations", "Rights violations, terror ops threaten Turkey's democratic institutions: PACE", "Turkey faces scrutiny over alleged use of chemical weapons on children in Syria", "Turkey accused of war crimes after suspected white phosphorus use against civilian Kurds in Syria", "Chemical weapons watchdog: Turkey did not use white phosphorus in Syria", "Damning evidence of war crimes by Turkish forces and allies in Syria", Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress, Status, conservation and management of large carnivores in Turkey, "Diyarbakır'da öldürülen leopar İran Parsı çıktı", "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2019", "World Economic Outlook Database, April 2020", "Turkey's evolving trade integration into Pan-European markets", "About Best-Selling Home Appliance Brand Beko UK", "Istanbul remains motoring power of Turkey's economy", "Turkey: Agriculture and Rural Development", "Religious Women in Turkey Have Been Left Out of Emancipation Movement", "M&A Encumbered Risks Damping Hot Money Bond Party: Turkey Credit", "How to ruin a country's economy: AKP's 15 year long order of plunder and depredation in Turkey", "Turkey's external debt stock reaches $453.2B", "Turkey's current account deficit at $5.4 billion in April", "WIND VS COAL POWER IN TURKEY/SOLAR PV VS COAL IN TURKEY", "Coronavirus poses threat to climate action, says watchdog", "Energy pricing and non-market flows in Turkey's energy sector", "Big nations aid fossil fuels more than clean energies amid pandemic, researchers find", "Turkey Bets on EVs with the Pininfarina-Designed TOGG", "Growth and economic crises in Turkey: leaving behind a turbulent past? [340], Turkey's internet, which has 42.3 million active users, holds a 'Not Free' ranking in Freedom House's index. [349] TÜBA is an autonomous scholarly society acting to promote scientific activities in Turkey. The country is encircled by seas on three sides: the Aegean Sea to the west, the Black Sea to the north and the Mediterranean to the south. However, in the period between the 1920s and 1950s, a new generation of Turkish entrepreneurs such as Nuri Demirağ, Vehbi Koç, Hacı Ömer Sabancı and Nejat Eczacıbaşı began to establish privately owned factories, some of which evolved into the largest industrial conglomerates that dominate the Turkish economy today, such as Koç Holding, Sabancı Holding and Eczacıbaşı Holding. [480] Many natural gas pipelines span the country's territory. Turkish basketball club Fenerbahçe played the Final of the EuroLeague in three consecutive seasons (2016, 2017 and 2018), becoming the European champions in 2017 and runners-up in 2016 and 2018. [217][218] Turkey maintains a force of 36,000 troops in Northern Cyprus since 1974. They also won multiple medals over multiple decades at the Mediterranean Games. [407] However, AKP policies have also caused an increase in interest and support for secularism in Turkey. Today there are numerous private theatres in the country, together with those which are subsidised by the government, such as the Turkish State Theatres. Turkey has borders with eight countries, and its government is thinking big. [400], The role of religion in public life has been the source of debate since the Republic was established on a secular basis, and in recent years with the coming to prominence of Islamist parties. [256] In its resolution "The functioning of democratic institutions in Turkey" on 22 June 2016, the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe warned that "recent developments in Turkey pertaining to freedom of the media and of expression, erosion of the rule of law and the human rights violations in relation to anti-terrorism security operations in south-east Turkey have (...) raised serious questions about the functioning of its democratic institutions."[257]. [182] The common threat posed by the Soviet Union during the Cold War led to Turkey's membership of NATO in 1952, ensuring close bilateral relations with the US. [247] In reaction to the failed coup attempt on 15 July 2016, over 160,000 judges, teachers, police and civil servants have been suspended or dismissed, 77,000 have been formally arrested,[248][249] and 130 media organisations, including 16 television broadcasters and 45 newspapers,[250] have been closed by the government of Turkey. [396][397], A 2016 survey by market research group Ipsos[398] that interviewed 17,180 adults across 22 countries found that Islam was the dominant religion in Turkey, adhered to by 82% of the total population; religiously unaffiliated people comprised 13% of the population, while 2% were Christians. During the war, the empire's Armenians were deported to Syria as part of the Armenian Genocide. [462], In 2015, life expectancy was 72.6 years for men and 78.9 for women, with an overall average of 75.8. In its wake, one of the Turkish principalities governed by Osman I would evolve over the next 200 years into the Ottoman Empire. [107] In 1983 the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, which is recognised only by Turkey, was established. [246], On 20 May 2016, the Turkish parliament stripped almost a quarter of its members of immunity from prosecution, including 101 deputies from the pro-Kurdish HDP and the main opposition CHP party. The Mevlevi Order of dervishes, which was established in Konya during the 13th century by Sufi poet Celaleddin Rumi, played a significant role in the Islamization of the diverse people of Anatolia who had previously been Hellenized. The modern Turkish republic was founded in 1923 after the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, and its capital is Istanbul (formerly Constantinople). Since the liberalisation of the Turkish economy in the 1980s, the country has enjoyed stronger economic growth and greater political stability. [283] However snow is rare in the coastal areas of the Aegean Sea and very rare in the coastal areas of the Mediterranean Sea. ", "Europarat sieht Türkei auf dem Weg in die Autokratie", "EU: Bericht: Europarat sieht Türkei auf dem Weg in die Autokratie", "Türkei: Europarat warnt vor drohender Autokratie", "The Latest: Turkey releases official referendum results", "Turkey referendum: Erdogan declares victory", "Turkish constitutional referendum: TRexit from parliamentary democracy? Many of the writers in the Tanzimat period wrote in several genres simultaneously: for instance, the poet Nâmık Kemal also wrote the important 1876 novel İntibâh (Awakening), while the journalist Şinasi has written, in 1860, the first modern Turkish play, the one-act comedy "Şair Evlenmesi" (The Poet's Marriage).

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